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Donald Neal Yates AncestryByDNA 2.5 Results. My admixture test in Jan. 31, 2007 from DNAPrint/Sorenson Genomics exposes a common flaw in genetic tests purporting to give you your percentage of Native American ancestry. It showed that I have 8% Native American, the rest "European" (as the makers misleadingly term Caucasian, including Middle Eastern and South Asian). Since my mitochondrial haplotype is a form of U2* similar to others in the study "Anomalous Mitochondrial Lineages in the Cherokee," it was apparently ignored by ABD 2.5 as a non-Native American type. Undoubtedly, much of my Cherokee heritage was glossed over by the test since the genetics community does not recognize Old World contributions to Native American tribal populations, dismissing U, T, X and other haplogroups as non-Native American. According to secure genealogical research I have conducted over the past 25 years, my admixture level calculated generation by generation (not counting true admixture since about 1750) is between 16 and 25%, not 8%. My great-grandmother, Lucinda Shankles, born 1892 (whose mitochondrial DNA was passed to me by my mother), was said by contemporaries to be 3/4 Cherokee--which alone would account for a level of 9% in me as her descendant. Calculations comparing standard admixture test results with established genealogies, especially for Cherokee, illustrate the tendency of the received state of the science to underestimate amounts of Native American by neglecting the diversity of tribes, often rooted in pre-Columbian contributions from the Middle East and North Africa.
Donald Neal Yates EURO-DNA 1.0 Results. The "European" part of my ancestry was also analyzed by DNAPrint in January of 2007. It was reported to consist of 19% Middle Eastern and 18% Southeast European. My Greek, Egyptian and other Eastern Mediterranean ancestors failed to appear in the Native American admixture test (see results posted above) but evidently made a big showing in the EURO-DNA results. If a third of the "Middle Eastern" and "Southeast European" ancestry is in reality Cherokee owing to their East Mediterranean roots, and if it is placed in the Native American column instead, that would bring my true Native American quantum to 19%, the figure estimated by a genealogical approach.
Matching Anomalous Cherokees. HVS2 results for Donald Yates and Phyllis Starnes match each other exactly and no other known mitochondrial DNA profile in the world. Their HVS1 results nearly match and are reported in the study "Anomalous Mitochondrial Lineages in the Cherokee." Both haplogroups are Cherokee forms of U2*, with the closest matches (outside of other Cherokee) in Turkey and Greece today. Yates's mitochondrial line goes back to a Cherokee woman of the Paint Clan who married Lithuanian-Scottish Indian trader Enoch Jordan (apparently of male haplogroup J). Starnes traces her maternal line to Susanna Owens, born about 1760, probably in Granville County, North Carolina. The family is Melungeon like the Coopers (Yates' mother was a Cooper), and Starnes suffers from a disease common among Melungeons and Sephardic Jews. Both Starnes’ and Yates' haplotypes share several motifs with three other cases of U2e*, suggesting shared Cherokee Paint Clan ancestry.
From an email of 8-13-06 to Elizabeth Hirschman:
My mtDNA scores are (as tested by both Sorenson and Trace Genomics):
16051G, 16129C, 16145A, 16182C, 16183C, 16189C, 16362C, 16519C, +7025AluI (means non-H), +12308HinfI at 16,362 (means = haplogroup U)
73G, 152C, 217C, 263G
Of these, 16051 is diagnostic of U2 and 16362 is the founder type for U2e (European branch as opposed to more recent Indian branch U2i). U2e is found in small frequencies in North African, Central Asian and Japanese populations.
There are no exact matches in the standard databases like Richards and the CRS, no sequences reported the mutation at 16,145, and the closest Trace Genetics could find were the following matches:
Multiple Ossete individuals: 051, 129, 183, 189, 362
Scottish, Armenia & Uygar individual: 051, 129, 189, 362
All these were considered one-step mutations, since the 180s are within the poly-c region and thus not counted. Multiple mutations in the poly-c region, by the way, are characteristic of Mongolian, Siberian and Native American mtDNA sequences.
Phyllis Starnes matched me exactly on HVS2 and had a similar pattern on HVS1:
16051G for 16051A
16075C for 16075T
16092C for 16092T
16129C for 16129T
16183C for 16183T
16189C for 16189T
16362C for 16362T
16519C for 16519T
She is Melungeon and claims to trace to a Cherokee woman, like me.
Closest match in Mitosearch was Mary Jane Wall, supposedly a Cherokee orphan raised by a N.C. Jewish family in early 19th cent.
Another close but not exact match, also unparalleled in Old World, was Larry Rutledge's ancestor, Mahala Wallen, dau. of Jesse Wallen, descendant of Elisha Wallen, of Hancock Co., Tenn.
Larry's U2e* is similar to Joe Bailey's ancestor, another Cherokee-Melungeon.
My ancestor was Martha Jordan of Northern Georgia, dau. of Enoch Jordan (a J) and a Cherokee woman born about 1790.
From all this I conclude in the chapter in [my book] Jewish Indians that these forms of U2e* were Native American lineages of extreme antiquity, since they were not paralleled in the Old World. In other words, when the world's population was small, these haplotypes came over to America, where they flourished. They did not survive in the Old World. I emailed Brent [Kennedy] about this and he concurred. Also, the fact that they all lead to Melungeon and Cherokee ancestry was striking.
Early DNA Fingerprint with Native American and Middle Eastern matches. My own DNA Fingerprint bears out the results of mitochondrial and admixture testing, discussed above, with high Native American matches and a heavy participation from Middle Eastern matches like Turkey, Albania, Cyprus and Greece.
From the Analysis and Conclusion: "Profile frequencies suggest the subject’s principal deep ancestral lineages are about equally divided between Native American and European, primarily Iberian ancestry. Scotland and Norway are also apparently not insignificant contributors, as is Southeastern Europe and Turkey. North Central and Northwest Europe appear to be minor contributors."
Australian Aboriginal Results. My son Paul's results turned out even stronger in Native American and Middle Eastern matches, even though his mother has no Native American, a phenomenon noticed in the disparate results of siblings in several of our families. Interestingly, he also has a high Aboriginal match -- false, or is it avataristic? It shows up Phyllis Starnes' children, as well.
Teresa Panther-Yates, another "anomalous" Cherokee descendant. When I first got my mitochondrial results about four years ago, I learned that I matched no one in the world! Indeed, I wondered if I might be from Mars. Why didn't I match someone? Later I discovered that my type U5b* fell into the Cherokee "anomalous" category which meant that my family stories of Cherokee descent were, as I knew, not just stores. And this was in a strict matrilineal fashion though these were not the stereotypical Native Americans envisaged by standard genetic testing and hidebound anthropologists. My matrilineal line goes back to Elizabeth (Eliza) Ann Culver, who died Dec. 8, 1847, in Hancock County, Georgia. By a sleight of hand very common at the time, she was whitewashed and made into a Marylander like her presumed father Levin Ellis, but she was, as her mitochondrial DNA suggests, in reality probably a Lower Cherokee woman. The Elati language she spoke is now extinct, as are apparently most of the Elati clans. Witness my lack of matches anywhere. Hoping to find a match as this study proceeds into Phase II!
Elizabeth Ann Ellis Culver born 1775 prob. in Lower Cherokee country in Georgia
Martha Matilda Culver Grace born 1807 in Georgia
Martha Roberta Grace Meares Brackin born Feb. 19, 1847 in Georgia
Mollie Brackin Box born 1867 in Georgia
Luta Mae Box Newberry born about 1890 in Newville, Henry County, Alabama
Nina Jo Newberry - my mother
Note: My mother had Cherokee ancestry from both parents. She was French/Tuscarora from my grandfather, Anderson Colbert Newberry, who descends from French Prevatts who settled in Robeson County, N.C. and then intermarried with Tuscaroras and Cherokees.
Egyptian match in autosomal DNA. It turns out that my top autosomal match for the DNA fingerprint test is EGYPTIAN. Other than this, there are a lot of Mediterranean matches (Spain, France, Italy,Greece, etc.). The latter was no real surprise since I have two French lines on both my paternal & maternal side (Ramey & Prevatt). Initially, an Egyptian match was a surprise. However, I later remembered that my Aunt Elzina had told me that the Rameys originally came from EGYPT. My Rameys are on my father's side. My grandmother was Etalka Vetula Grimwood & her mother was Redema Ramey. I knew something was a bit odd when my Aunt Elzina told me, "You will never discover the truth about my mother's people."
Note by firstname.lastname@example.org: Teresa's high Egyptian match probably resulted from a combination of circumstances having to do with her "anomalous Cherokee" status and the Rameys' origins in Egypt (and intermarriage over the generations with people of similar ancestry). The DNA Fingerprint Report reflects accumulated ancestry from all lines.