It is a person's set of values for the markers
that have been tested. Two individuals that match on all markers but
one, have two distinct haplotypes (one-step mutation). Matching another
person's exact haplotype indicates you are genetic cousins and have a
common ancestor. Haplogroups are the branches, and can be either male
(based on ancient fathers' Y chromosomes) or female (based on ancient
mother's mitochondrial DNA). They are the descents or mega-families
that characterized early human migrations. These are normally
associated with geographical regions. The origins of male haplotypes
are measured in hundreds of years, whereas those of female haplotypes
go back thousands. Examples of male haplogroups: R1b (Western Atlantic
European), I (northern Europe), J (Jewish, Middle Eastern).
See also Conversion Chart for Male Haplogroups.