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Do You Know Your European Origins?

Thursday, July 02, 2015

Do You Know Your European Origins by Country?

Review of European DNA Testing

By Donald N. Yates

Most people who buy a DNA test want to know what countries in Europe their ancestors came from. But the favored approaches of major companies like 23andMe have so far not yielded entirely satisfactory results, at least to judge from consumer feedback. This review article explores the reasons for this failing and proposes that DNA Consultants’ EURO DNA database based on forensic population data may be a more accurate measure of nationalities in our background than complicated and expensive microarray genotyping.

Since the beginnings until 1960, over 50 million immigrants settled in what is now the U.S., most of them from Europe. Before 1881, about 86% of the total arrived from northwest Europe, principally England, Wales, ScotlandIreland, Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia. Under the New Immigration that followed between 1894 and 1914 immigrants from southern, central and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total. Many of those were Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Romanian and Galician Jews.

Despite their strong European roots, most Americans know little about what nationalities contributed to their family tree. Many families single out one country of origin and ignore others. In the 2013 American Community SurveyGerman Americans (14.6%), Irish Americans (10.5%), English Americans(7.7%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States, forming 38.2% of the total population.

And then there are those who report just being “American." Often of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish and/or Welsh ancestry that they cannot trace, given its predominance in the upper South (such as Kentucky and Tennessee), they amounted to nearly 10% in the 2010 Census, with this trend growing rapidly. Also, according to a Wikipedia article, two-thirds of white Americans have two or more different European nationalities, often four or more, and many "American" respondents may be cases where the person does not think any one ancestry is dominant enough to identify with.


Present-day European countries and major cities (Wikivoyage). Russia east to the Urals and five-percent of Turkey’s landmass fall in Europe. The broadly linguistic regions were similar as early as the sixteenth century and have been reaffirmed by DNA studies: British Isles (lilac), Scandinavia (blue-green), Russia (blue), Baltic (light green), Central Europe (green), Balkans (light blue), Greece and Turkey (purple), Caucasus (violet), Italy (orange), Low Countries (yellow), France (brown) and Iberia (rose).

An important article published last year by geneticists at Harvard and 23andMe drew back the veil on Americans’ European ancestry. It was titled “The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States” and appeared in the prestigious American Journal of Human Genetics. The authors found a higher degree of genetic mixing among all groups than previously suspected. “This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry,” according to the authors Katarzyna Bryc et al.

According to the 23andMe study, African Americans had about one-quarter European genes (Y chromosome studies had put the figure as high as 30%), and some had significant amounts of American Indian ancestry (Oklahoma blacks led the country). Latinos carry an average of 18% Native American ancestry, 65% European ancestry (mostly from the Iberian Peninsula) and 6% African ancestry (compared to 3.5% for European Americans).  

Such fine-scale genetic analysis was made possible by affordable microchip technology involving more than 800,000 SNPs tracked longitudinally through cohort groups. But the analysis did not distinguish between different European ancestries, certainly not on a country-specific scale, and 23andMe’s European results—just as much as Ancestry.com’s or those of other companies using the “genetic strand” approach—have not exactly received a conqueror’s welcome in the ancestry market.

Chronology of European DNA Tests
Foundational to emerging European DNA studies was a 2008 article by Oscar Lao of the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rotterdam and co-authors: “Correlation between Genetic and Geographic Structure in Europe.” Current Biology 18/16:  1241-48. This study found that valid and meaningful genetic populations in Europe were defined by linguistic boundaries, which were largely in turn coincidental with modern national borders. This thesis makes sense:  people throughout history have usually married someone nearby who spoke the same language. The work of the late Martin Lucas of DNA Tribes underscored this bedrock population structure, at least on a regional basis, if not a country-specific one.  A burst of studies over the past five years have begun to paint in the genetic histories of various countries, such as England, Ireland and Belgium. Most of these ask for participants with four grandparents of the same local ancestry.

Previous European analyses had been content to match your Y chromosome or mitochondrial type to countries of origin reported by customers. The advantages of autosomal DNA are apparent if one considers that sex-linked tests target only two of your lines (your father’s male line and mother’s female line), whereas if you go back even five generations you have 16 male ancestors and 16 female ancestors (your 3rd great-grandparents). According to uniparental schemes of ancestry I should be 100% English. The diversity and surprising variety come in only if you dig beneath the surface and sift back through the generations.

It is suspected that the results even of “autosomal” (non-sex-linked) testing have not been entirely rid of skewed results and sample biases. The fact that samples often come from medical studies and the purpose of genetic research is largely aimed at medical studies, not ancestry, introduces an unavoidable bias, not to mention the suspicious preponderance of countries like England, German and the U.S. to the detriment of the nations of Eastern and Southern Europe. What about a truly autosomal method that completely ignores the gender of the tested person?  What about a database of European countries that is equal, comprehensive and unequivocal? What about a method that compares you only to Europeans, not European Americans? In short, what about a good European DNA test plain and simple that gives genealogy enthusiasts what they want?

Just such a product is available for under a hundred dollars with the EURO DNA Ancestry Test from DNA Consultants. It forms part of the company’s atDNA autosomal ancestry database, now in version 7.0, released in late June (N = 9,983). Since 2009, we have worked with Professor Wendell Paulson at Arizona State University, Mathematics Department, to develop a 10-loci STR frequency database for European countries/populations, forming part of our DNA Fingerprint Test. The 10-loci are: D81179, D21S11, D3S1358, THO1, D16S539, D21338, D19S433, VWA, D18S51 and FGA. On this basis, we have incorporated data for the following 39 populations from publications or online sources:


Albania/Kosovo (n = 136)

Austria (n = 222)

Belarus (n = 176)

Belgian - Flemish (n = 231)

Belgium  (n = 206)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171)

Croatia (n = 200)

Czech Republic (n = 200)

Denmark (n = 200)

England/Wales (n = 437)

Estonia (n = 150)

Finland (n = 230)

France (n = 208)

France – North (Lille) (n = 200)

France – South (Toulouse) (n = 335)

Germany (n = 662)

Greece (n = 208)

Hungary (n = 224)

Ireland (n = 304)

Italy (n = 209) (Replaced Italy n = 103)

Lithuania (n = 300)

Macedonia (n = 100)

Montenegro (n = 200)

Netherlands (n = 231)

Northern Ireland (n = 207)

Norway (n = 202)

Poland (n = 206)

Portugal (n = 150)

Romania (n = 243)

Russia (n = 184)

Scotland - Highlands (Dundee) (n = 228)

Scotland – Lowlands (Glasgow) (n = 494)

Serbia (n = 100)

Slovakia (n = 247)

Slovenia (n = 207)

Spain (n = 449)

Sweden (n = 424)

Switzerland (n = 402)

Turkey (n = 500)

This covers all European countries of significance in genealogy with the exception of the Ukraine and Latvia. The former appears in the World Matches part of reports, and while we are unaware of strictly Latvian data commensurate with the European standard, the neighboring countries of Estonia and Lithuania are represented in our current list. Minor countries like Iceland and Malta are not included, though data were available for them. The 39-country basis replaces the earlier 22-country basis limited to ENFSI (mostly European Union members) and goes beyond the partially updated Strbase 2.0.

How good is the EURO DNA Test? One customer, Jonah Womack, wrote to us in 2012: 

I just wanted to compliment everyone at DNA consultants. My father had always said our ancestors were from Czechloslovakia, and I was curious enough to put it to the test. Within one week of mailing my sample, I had the answers I was looking for. I was so happy to share the news with my father; the top 3 matches were all from eastern Slovakia. That objective evidence led to him sharing family stories I would have likely never known. All I can say is thank you, and this was money well spent.

With the new version of atDNA 7.0, I naturally raced to input my own DNA profile and check my EURO results. An early analysis with ENFSI (available online since 2004) gave me the following Top Ten results:





















The mystery of Finland and Estonia may be explained by the large Native American admixture in my genes:  recent research has suggested that Finno-Ugric peoples and Native Americans share a wide degree of deep ancestry in the so-called “ghost populations” of Stone Age northeast Europe or Ancient North Eurasians (ANE).[1]

But I was unaware of any Swiss, Swedish or Danish ancestors and felt dissatisfied with the list.

After improvements and additions, my new EURO results look like this:


Scotland - Highlands (n = 228)


England/Wales (n = 437)


Netherlands  (n = 231)


Finland (n = 230)


Estonia (n = 150)


Belgium - Flemish (n = 231)


Scotland - Lowlands (n = 494)


Romania (n=243)


Northern Ireland (n = 207)


Portugal (n = 150)

The listing continues with Italy, Czech Republic and Germany. The median falls between #30 France and # 31 Denmark. This “most on a par with each other with a few extreme outliers” picture seems to suggest that my European origins are a lot more diverse than the Top Ten would indicate. The countries below average frequency were Denmark (n = 200), Croatia (n = 200), Russia (n = 184), Belgium (n = 206), Belarus (n = 176), Austria (n = 222), Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171), Macedonia (n = 100), Lithuania (n = 300). On the face of it, I was less likely to have ancestry in any of these countries, and sure enough, I was not aware of any from my genealogical research. Statistically, I am ten times more likely to have Scottish, English or Dutch ancestry than Macedonian, Bosnian/Herzegovinian or Lithuanian.

DNA Analysis Checked by Surname
I next wanted to see how the top countries tallied with a surname count. Both parents had English surnames (Cooper and Yates), and this seemed to be reflected in the prominent position of England/Wales, while a Scottish grandmother (McDonald) and Dutch grandmother (Goble) seemed to justify Highlands Scotland and the Netherlands. We have already explained Finland. But what about the other countries?

Looking at the surname origins of my thirty-two 3rd-great-grandparents, I obtained the following statistics:

34% Scottish (Mitchell, McDonald, Johnson, Kitchens, Mason, Forester, Pickard, Proctor, Lackey)

25% English/Welsh (Barnes, Yates, Thomas, Goodson, Kimbrell, Cooper, Blevins, Wooten)

13% Dutch (Hooten, Goble, Shankles)

9% Irish (Ellard, Denney)

6% German (Graben, Redwine)

6% Portuguese/Jewish (Storer, Bondurant)

3% Hungarian (Sizemore)

An effective 3% percent, my 3rd-great grandmother Yates, who was a Creek Indian, had no surname. So that accounts for all strains and fits well with the new EURO results. The top three ancestries both in terms of autosomal DNA frequency and my Ahnentafel were Highlands Scottish, English/Welsh and Dutch. These were the most familiar ethnic origins mentioned in family stories and traditions.

Autosomal Population Analysis versus Genetic Strands
Let us compare these EURO results to 23andMe’s tabulation, expressed as percentages instead of a country breakdown ranked by likelihood. First of all, 23andMe has me as 99.2% European, with only 0.4% East Asian and Native American, in contradiction to the 8-25% Native American found in other tests from companies employing a percentage score. Of the 99.2% European, 46.7% is British and Irish—in agreement with my highest-ranked countries according to atDNA (nos. 1 and 7 Scotland, 2 England/Wales, and 9 and 16 Northern Ireland and Ireland).  40.1% is “broadly Northern European. Minor amounts are “broadly Southern European” (0.3%) and “broadly European” (2.8%), while <0.1% is “unassigned.” Of the Northern European, there is 5.3% French and German and 4.0% Scandinavian.

There is an air of scientific certitude about 23andMe’s EURO analysis. The listing of ancestry composition appears comprehensive and exhaustive. It adds up. But it is important to point out that the categories are regional, not country-specific. The only countries mentioned are France and Germany, which are not distinguished but lumped together—a choice that would create consternation in most Frenchmen and Germans. There are obvious flaws and limitations in their data and its interpretation.

One limitation is the special inclusion of “Ashkenazi” (of which I am said to have 0.0%) without a mention of “Sephardic,” historically the more numerous branch of Judaism. The DNA Fingerprint has discrete data for four Jewish populations in the World Populations (Israeli Sephardim, Hungarian Ashkenazi Jews, Chuetas, Majorca), as well as four ethnic markers, one of which is strong in Ashkenazi Jews and the other in Sephardic Jews.

The 23andMe approach could be called the omnium-and-gatherum method, with numerous blind spots. It is not, strictly speaking, evenly valid or consistent. It leaves a good deal lacking in reliability, too. Throughout history, Jews have converted or hidden their ancestry. We cannot expect them to come pouring out in the 21st century to self-identify for DNA surveys even if they retain knowledge of their Jewish past. Yes, perhaps some Ashkenazi Jews will sign up for the program and so identify, but one wonders about a medical motive and bias.

Unsurprisingly, Ancestry.com produced similar results for me—99% European, 0% Native American, with 61% coming from “Great Britain,” 15% Ireland and 0% “European Jewish” (equivalent to 23andMe’s Ashkenazi apparently). Presumably, Ireland comprehends only the country by that name, Northern Ireland being a part of Great Britain, although I have no knowledge of that much Irish in my family tree and Ireland ranks only 16th in my DNA Consultants results. Both Ancestry and 23andMe use high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) from Illumina, involving as many as 800,000 SNPs.

The Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip platform is also used in Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder autosomal DNA testing service (which I have not taken). A good description of the microarray process for genotyping technology can be found on a page at 23andMe, with a link to further information on the Illumina website.

In sum, next-generation genotyping technology seems to be accurate enough in assessing the broad picture of your European ancestry, but it is incapable of giving you a country breakdown. Only DNA Consultants’ EURO test, part of its DNA Fingerprint Plus ($279) and available separately for as little as $99, can list and rank the countries of Europe where your ancestors likely originated. It does this not on the basis of genome-wide assessment of hundreds of thousands of SNPs but by comparing your DNA profile to the scores of 10,000 Europeans identified according to 37 actual country names, from Albania to Turkey.

My EURO results matched amazingly well with what I knew from extensive genealogy research about my European forebears, beginning with all the English and Scottish lines right down to minor lines from Portugal and Hungary. With its “false Finnish” match it also indirectly confirmed the Native American ancestry that was evident in abundance in my world matches. Now if I could only find the elusive Romanians (no. 8) in my tree . . . .

[1] Lazaridis, I. et al., “Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for the Present-day Europeans." Nature 513/7518{2014):409-13 (known as the Reich article after David Reich of the Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School); A. Seguin-Orlando et al., “Genomic Structure in Europeans Dating Back at Least 36,200 years,” Science 346/6213 (2014):1113-1118 (known as the Willerslev study after Eske Willerslev of Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen).


Curious commented on 25-Jul-2015 09:28 PM

I finally took the yDNA and mtDNA tests and a lot of the questions raised by my autosomal tests were answered. I'm R-M269 and H11a, both common European haplogroups. I'm a little more confident about where my ancestors originated; the autosomal test told me where they wandered around, but the haplogroups narrow down their origins some.

I'd punch my numbers into the ENFSI calculator and get some results that're pretty far removed from European origins. But from surfing around the Web I find that R1b really's spread about the globe. That's interesting in itself. I guess people with the I haplogroup would get closest (or closer) full-European results from that calculator. I've gotten a lot of information from Eupedia's site. I imagine that's fairly reliable.

I've sunk some money into all this now; I even took my Neanderthal Index. I'm not indigenous Native American, which I was beginning to believe from my autosomal test. I'm also not haplogroup I, which is said to be closest to true European (right? Wrong?). So this is fun and I'm happy I've gotten to take both the mt and yDNA tests along with the autosomal. One without the other could cause more confusion than the person started out with.

And can't leave out the Neanderthal Index, can we?

Robert Bury commented on 24-Sep-2015 11:03 PM

In my Family Finder DNA about 10% of my 800 matches are from people who have identified themselves as Jewish, Levite, or have Jewish names. All of theses people have at least 5 cM. segments on the 16th chromosome at the far right side. Is this a common segment for Jewish DNA?

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Where Do I Come From: Jim Stritzel

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

James Stritzel, participant no. 8 in Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Project, was interviewed by Vice President of Communications Teresa Yates on October 20, 2014. His story appears in Cherokee DNA Studies:  Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong. 

I live in Washington State, and grew up all over the Western United States, including Alaska. My dad, John Rolland Stritzel, was in the Army. His father, Albert Stritzel, was born in Austria, as was his mother, Marie Mauser. My mother and my maternal aunts said our ancestors were fur traders of both French and Native American ancestry (Metis, Mohawk, Cree), but I had no proof of my Native American ancestry until participating in the Cherokee DNA Project.  I am now sixty-six and one of my earliest memories as a very young child is trying to do broom dancing to fiddle music. Recently, I have built on the base of family oral history I heard as a child concerning my American Indian heritage. I have taken DNA ancestry tests and started following a beginning paper trail. I have also begun making pipes with the permission of a sixth-generation Lakota Nation Pipe Maker. At his request, I spent part of the summer with him and learned a lot about carving pipes. In the picture, I am carving a Deer pipe from Minnesota red pipestone. I also carve animals and natural scenes using soapstone, alabaster, sandstone, and limestone. 

My mother was Kathleen Ena Walsh (her birth name). She was born in 1926 in Birmingham, Alabama. Her mother was Eunice Mabel Ahearn (born 1896/97 or 98) per Eunice’s 1917 New York wedding license, and my maternal great grandmother was Anna Elizabeth. My family’s oral history was that Eunice was adopted and either full or at least half Native American, with Metis, Mohawk, Cree/French and Cherokee further back. Until I did DNA testing with the project, this was as far as I could get on the paper trail, as New York is a closed adoption record state. However, I found a proven relation from DNA testing that seems to confirm our oral history of her. Our oral history of this line is Metis in the fur trade, and this relation is not far from where I thought my great-grandmother was from in Montague, Massachusetts, so I now believe I have her name down and have found her line to either Tighe or Terry. Moreover, I am now starting to verify this with a paper trail as well.

In sum, my family’s oral history of the line has been confirmed as Native American through mitochondrial testing and some close matches. My Native American DNA Ancestry Test from DNA Consultants shows that my maternal line is a unique J with no exact matches in Mitosearch though my mutations did closely match someone else in the Cherokee DNA Project.  My mtdna haplotype J is unmatched in the world according to Dr. Yates. Despite it generally being viewed as a type reflecting Jewish lineage, my particular line, according to his company’s analysis, is Native American. The closest match to my mother’s J line was a lady in Australia that I have emailed, but we found no common ancestors. I believe Dr. Yates said the match may be of ancient origin.

The company report says my maternal line is American Indian despite being an unaccepted mitochondrial type:

Although not one of the classic Native American lineages (A, B, C, D, and X), J has been discovered in the Cherokee Indians (Schurr, Bolnick, and Smith). Most investigators attribute this to recent European admixture. But J haplotyes without Old World exact matches and with only New World exact matches or unique occurrences could just as well be considered Native American. Since this does appear to be the case with the subject’s type, it probably is Native American.

I am continuing to learn more about my family history and would be interested in comparing the autosomal results of members of the Cherokee Study to each other on gedmatch.com. If anyone has uploaded their autosomal results there my gedmatch number is F301307.

DNA Consultants was also able to show I had Native American markers (I and II) which led me to further explore DNA testing.  I further corroborated my Native American ancestry after Dr. Yates kindly referred me to the (now retired) Family Tree’s Acadian Amerindian study.  There I matched autosomally with people of Metis, Mohawk, and French ancestry from near the Montreal area and possibly with Cree as well.  This led to a beginning paper trail, and I now have the strength of knowledge of not only my family’s oral history, but DNA and genealogies. I now have some actual names.

Thanks to DNA Consultants I possess a strong base to find more ancestors. I believe there is a lot of resistance to admitting Native American haplotypes can go beyond the standard A, B, C, D and X haplotypes because a lot of professional people have their careers staked on perpetuating this dogma. However, it runs deeper than this. If you want to conquer a people, you’ve got to make them other than you, not as civilized as you; otherwise, you cannot call them savages and yourself superior. What the study has done for me is this: through it, I have found my people on Mother Earth. I am thankful to all concerned for that.


Nancy Lake commented on 06-Feb-2015 11:23 AM

I hope to do DNA research like you. My line is Cherokee, and specifically, the Wild Potato Clan of Alabama. There might be another very ancient unique DNA answer. If Atlantis existed as the Greeks maintain...some boats went toward the Mediterranean and some to the Americas. In other words...the Hebrew people might have traveled a long way to their promised land and we know from Noah flood story they came by boat. The other group went to the Americas and traveled as well. It is a long shot theory. I am itching to get accurate DNA results when I can afford it.

Nancy (Woods) (Bell) Lake

Ramona Brown commented on 08-Jan-2016 08:43 PM

I am Haplogroup J2a1a. My gedmatch is M378571. We don't seem to be a match though.

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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part Four

Friday, October 10, 2014

Part Four is the conclusion to our series of reports on the "anomalous Cherokees." Depicted left is author Donald Yates in Rome.

Read the full paper
More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee

J, a Major Jewish Haplogroup

Haplogroup J, termed Jasmine in the scheme of Oxford Ancestors, is believed to have originated in the Old Near East and to have moved north and west into Europe, especially after the spread of agriculture beginning 5000-3000 BCE. It is found throughout Europe with particularly high concentrations around the eastern Baltic Sea and Russia, as well as in Bedouins and Yemeni, where it reaches frequencies of 25% or higher. J is a major Jewish female lineage (Thomas 2002), being a strong maternal contributor to Jewish, Arab, Greek and Italian populations. J is also the apparent carrier of congenital longevity and a host of “Jewish” diseases that are just beginning to be understood by medical science.

There were 6 J's in Phase II (nos. 3, 8, 32, 35, 41 and 63, composing 9%), 4 in Phase I and 17 in the CBC data, making for an aggregate of 10.7%, somewhat less than the level for the Middle East and Europe (12%).

There were multiple matches between participants. An example is James Richard Stritzel (8), whose form of J1b1 matched No. 63  on HVS1 with several mismatches on HVS2. Stritzel's grandmother, Eunice Mable, was adopted out of the Mohawk tribe and given the last name Ahern abt. 1900. His rare haplotype is similar to five J's reported in Phase I. Of these, Nadine Rosebush's type is not matched anywhere in the world. In other words, these J types seem to be specific to the micro-population in which they are found today and are not widespread. One might make an argument of inferred ancestry as follows, although other interpretations are also possible. The germ line and enclosing population may have originated in classical antiquity. Instances survived to the present in North America only because they were part of the discrete and continuous existence of a "people." This "people" had spread intact by discontinuous, long-distance migration from its point of origin, where in the course of centuries its presence became extinct.

Rarest of the Rare:  I, N, V and W

Turning now to the four haplogroups that first cropped up in Phase II, we have one or two individuals each with I (54 Swinney, 48 Francisco), N (2 Kellam), V (39 Ponder) and W (30 Carpenter, 31 Sponenburgh). Percentages, phylogeny and phylogeographic patterns are probably not meaningful. Let us note, however, that one of the I's (54) had no matches anywhere, while the other (48) matched Dicie Gray, born 1828 in North Carolina. For haplogroup N, the sole example Norma Kellam (no. 2, N1A) traces her mitochondrial line to Roanoke, Virginia. She had several unique SNPs and matched only a handful of other people. In medieval times, N gave birth to one of the four major Ashkenazi Jewish founder lineages, probably in the Rhine Basin.

Fig. 14. James Stritzel (8) was told by previous labs that in “no way” could his DNA be Native American. His mother’s line, however, was confirmed as Cherokee (or Mohawk) despite being an unusual type. Here the Manchester, Wash. resident carves a Deer Pipe after spending part of last summer training under a sixth-generation Lakota Nation Pipe Maker. 

Fig. 15. Norma Kellam (2) of Westminster, Calif. has maternal line ancestry in Virginia and matched only five Mitosearch users, two of whom also traced to Virginia. The other three pointed to Tennessee, Mississippi and unknown origins. Her maternal grandmother was Daisy Brooks (b. 1894, m. Cronk) and great-grandmother, Nancy Ann Tingery (m. John Sellars Brooks).

African L Haplotypes

Surprisingly, there were 6 L haplotypes in Phase II (9.0%). In Phase I, there were 3 (5.8%), and the CBC data include 7 (5.2%), bringing the total across all datasets to 16, or 6.3%. The most common haplogroup was L3, the oldest African lineage, associated with and most common today in East Africa. If the African DNA were the simple effect of gene flow into the Cherokee from historical-era slaves and freemen, one would expect West African centered L2 to dominate the results, as this is far and away the most prevalent type carried by African Americans (as much as 50%). L3, on the other hand, is characterized by a relatively greater presence in circum-Mediterranean and European populations. According to one authority, "L3 is more related to Eurasian haplogroups than to the most divergent African clusters L1 and L2" (Maca-Meyer et al. 2001). Sub-Saharan African L lineages account for 10% of the population in Saudi Arabia, and L3 occupies a prominent position (72% of them; Abu-Amero et al. 2008). It has also been observed in Slavic or East European populations, especially among Ukrainian Jews, possibly vestigial admixture from ancient slaves in the Roman Empire and Islam. L3 accounts for only one-third of L lineages within Africa.

We will highlight three L3's. Shelia Maria Wilson (52), who lives in New Mexico, has 20 mutations on mitochondrial control regions 1 and 2, the highest number we have ever studied. Generally, the more mutations, the more ancient the type. There was, however, not even a remote match in databases, making hers a unique type reported only in North America. Wilson knows her genealogy only as far back as her great-grandmother, Mrs. Julia Adams. The surname came from the Georgia slave master of her father Harry Adams. Harry, who called himself "Mali blasta," was kidnapped in Mali as a pre-teen shortly before the Civil War. Shelia's mother Willie Mae Adams, born in 1927, remembered seeing the whelps on her grandfather's back where he was whipped. "I had been informed by some relatives," writes Wilson, "that my great-grandmother was at least part Native American and White."  Another L3 (47, Lovancia Francisco) matched a historical Native woman, A Te Anu, Muscogee.


Fig. 16. Willie Mae Adams was born June 2, 1904 in Butler County, Ga. She was the youngest girl of seven children. Her mother was a mix of black, Caucasian and Native American.

Fig. 17. Shelia Maria Wilson (participant 52) carries an old and rare form of L3 that apparently left no descendants except for her and her family.


Gregory Damon Haynes (no. 16) has another unique and otherwise unreported L3 haplotype, with a SNP found in no other person (16163G). His father had a rare American Indian Q haplotype with relatives on two Indian census rolls. His maternal grandmother was Lily Marie Benjamin (Blythe), born October 15, 1922 in North Carolina. Could his maternal line have been Cherokee? The question remains open, as it is extremely difficult to investigate the lines of ex-slaves.


Fig. 10. Haplogroup Distribution versus Europe and Other Populations, Based on Richards et al. 2000.

































































If we are to accept our sample as valid for its purposes, several salient parameters of the study population labeled "Anomalous Cherokees" seem to leap out from the table of haplogroup frequency comparisons (Fig. 10).

1) The first striking feature is the high amount of T lineages evident in Cherokee descendants. T is the leading haplogroup (23.1%), with a frequency on a par with modern-day Egyptians (23.4%) and Arabs (24.4%). That is elevated by a factor of 4 over the East Mediterranean levels, three times that of Europe and the United States and twice that of the Middle East. T is thus a defining mark of Cherokee ancestry. Where did it come from? We can safely rule out recent European admixture.  As we have discussed again and again, there was no available source for a huge, sudden influx of female-mediated Middle Eastern DNA on the American frontier.  Even Sephardic Jews (11-14%), many of whom were also Indian traders, could hardly have accounted for such admixture. Moreover, had it occurred in the colonial period or more recently the diversity, age and unique characteristics of the T haplotypes would not have yielded the patterns noticed in this paper. Most T's would have matched people in the Old World and we would simply be looking at an effect of migration. Instead, we have a North American branch of T with peculiar SNPs which is evidently a cross-section of a very old population originating in the Old World. The thesis of Donald Yates' study of Cherokee history is that an expedition of Ptolemaic Egyptians and others in the 3rd century BCE served as the nucleus of settlers that became the Eshelokee (Cherokee). If this historical model is correct, there was a severe bottleneck of DNA accompanying the establishment of the Cherokee, with many founder effects—something suggested by the frequent cross-matches, high degree of interrelatedness and clustering of types in our data.

2) The second glaring figure is the relatively low amount of H (12%), which is the leading haplogroup in Europeans (~50%). If the admixture were attributable to European women in the colonial period we would expect it to be much higher.  

3) The third observation we can make is the similarity of haplogroups strongly associated with Jews (J, K at 14.5%) to European levels (15.3%). At whatever time period admixture occurred, whether in ancient or modern times, Jewish women likely formed part of it.  Men cannot pass mitochondrial DNA. Like other contributions to the gene pool, J and K came from a feeder population or sub-population that had families on board. In other words, JK haplotypes could not have been the result of shipwrecked Portuguese sailors, Arab or Jewish merchants, soldiers or any of the other suspects often trotted forth. Judging also from the uniqueness of JK types and their diversity, we are looking at a Jewish signal deeply embedded in the structure of Cherokee populations.

4) L haplogroup frequency (7.7%) is about half that of Egypt (15.6%). East African-centered L3 predominates, not West and Central African-oriented L1 and L2 haplogroups, which are twice as abundant, and which define the majority of slaves and their descendants in the New World. We are unsure how to read this. It may be that in the nature of things, African American lines were under-sampled. Federal regulations and the controversy embroiling the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma in their on-again-off-again rejection of freedmen as citizens might have served as a disincentive to blacks' testing their DNA. Blacks are also hampered in tracing genealogies, unlike whites or Hispanics, or indeed Native Americans. 

Certainly, however, our data suggests there has always been a constant African component in Cherokee DNA, one that resembles North and East African populations rather than West and Central Africans. Beginning around the start of the Common Era, the Bantu expansion swamped all Africa with L1 and L2 genes. A high proportion of L3 could mean that admixture with the Cherokee predates that event. We have records of Phoenician colonization efforts as massive as the "30,000  desert-dwelling Moors from the hinterland of Carthage" in about 500 BCE (Yates 2012, p. 32). Mining operations then and now used a large number of women slaves, who were prized for their agility in negotiating small openings as well as their becoming inured to cruel conditions (this is still the norm in Egypt, India and Bolivia, though the workers are no longer legally considered slaves; see Del Mar 1902). The clan that specifically included black-skinned people among the Cherokee was called the Blue Paint or Panther (Ani-Sahoni; see Panther-Yates 2013, pp. 30-31). It was related to the original (Red) Paint Clan, named for the Paint People, or Phoenicians (Ani-Wodi).

5) Finally, we might remark on the minor (I, N, V, W), unknown (I 33, 36, 37, 40; II 33) and missing haplogroups (G, HV, pre-HV, M and other Asian types).  I, N, V and W are minimally adduced in Egyptian, Palestinian, Arab and Turkish populations.  They round out our picture of the original genetic inputs to the Cherokee, showing that the source of "admixture" was deep seated and diverse. The Cherokee population structure seems to be rather an effect of long-distance travel and conquest than of gradually developing encroachment, migration or genetic drift.     

Admixture, just like the word "anomalous," is a relative term. Its use depends on one's perspective. Geneticists, as we have seen, tend to privilege a rather narrow body of recent U.S. and European scientific literature. It is time to de-colonize the human past and open our eyes to the diversity of American Indian peoples. The personal genealogies of over one hundred Cherokee descendants contradict popular and professional received wisdom about Indian nations.


Addendum:  Begging the Question

For science to be separated from pseudoscience, its findings must obey the rule of falsifiability. This term has often been misunderstood, but what it means according to philosophers of science is that empirical statements such as "All swans are white" must be "such that to verify them and to falsify them must both be logically possible" (Popper 2005). Otherwise, as Wolfgang Pauli famously remarked, an argument "is not only not right, it is not even wrong."

In plain language, we could say that so far from barking up the wrong tree, that dog don't hunt.

"All swans are white" is a falsifiable statement. It can be tested by observation and shown to be generally true (though false in cases of black swans). But such statements as "All American Indians descend from haplogroups A-D and sometimes X" is not falsifiable. Neither this generalization nor its converse is testable in any experiential way. No amount of corollaries, exceptions to the rule or qualification will fix it.

"A woman of haplogroup A (or B, or X, or T, or W) founded a Cherokee matriline," on the other hand, is falsifiable. It is scientifically true in certain individual cases and datasets, as claimed in the present study ("experiment"), just as it is scientifically false in other instances.

Much of the surmises of science about the peopling of the Americas can be said to be on the wrong track. It can neither be proved true nor decided false that ancestors of American Indians crossed a hypothetical Bering land bridge at some time in the unknown past. Let us hope that the growing demand for truth from amateur roots-seekers and test takers will force professionals to predicate their research agendas and phrase their findings more carefully in the future. If they do not, they will be failing the public trust. There is also a need for science reporters and writers to frame their stories more responsibly. We have always said, "There are Indians and Indians."


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Project data available upon request from dpy@dnaconsultants.com.

Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee (Phase I)



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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part One

Thursday, October 02, 2014

By Donald N. Yates

Because of its length, our long-awaited report on Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Project is being published in installments. Part I deals with the background of American Indian haplogroup analysis and the "peopling of the Americas" hypothesis that has prevailed in genetics since 1993. Part Two will describe our procedure and methodology. 

A purposive sample of individuals who took a mitochondrial DNA test to determine female lineage (n=67) was created from participants in DNA Consultants' Cherokee DNA Project Phase II. Almost all beforehand claimed matrilineal descent from a Native American woman, usually believed to be Cherokee, and often named in genealogy research undertaken by the customer. The majority of subjects revealed "anomalous" haplotypes not previously classified as American Indian. Many matched others in Phase I. Several individuals overcame the barrier of a sealed adoption to find biological relationships, often to other participants. As in Phase I, a Middle Eastern type, haplogroup T, emerged as the most common lineage (19.4% in Phase II, 22.7% overall in the project), followed by H, U and J, all Eurasian types. Sub-Saharan African haplogroup L (9%) was prominent as a minor category. Old Europe haplogroups I, N, V and W occurred in small amounts and should be considered strikingly new, unreported signals of authentic Cherokee ancestry.



Ever since the pioneering work of Douglas C. Wallace, Rebecca L. Cann and others on the use of human mitochondrial DNA as a marker for genetic ancestry and disease, scientists have insisted on a very limited and rigid number of ancient Asian female founders for present-day American Indian populations. In 1993, Satoshi Horai of the National Institute of Genetics in Mishima, Japan was the lead author in a study with the agenda-setting title, "Peopling of the Americas, Founded by Four Major Lineages of Mitochondrial DNA." That same year, Antonio Torroni of the University of Pavia coined the term haplogroup in a publication in the American Journal of Human Genetics in which he and his co-authors postulated but four lineages, A, B, C and D to account for mitochondrial ancestries in their sample. Also in 1993, Anne C. Stone (Arizona State University) and Mark Stoneking (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology) confirmed the four haplogroups in a 1300 C.E. burial ground in central Illinois, the Norris Farms site. The year 1993 was truly an annus mirabilis in American Indian genetics. It remained only for the minor haplogroup X to be added to the original four lineages (Brown et al. 1998, Malhi and Smith 2002; Smith et al. 1999).

In the ensuing twenty years, academic studies, textbooks, the popular media and governmental policies fell into lockstep about the "peopling of the Americas." Despite a number of voices being raised in criticism (Jones; Guthrie; Jett), the model restricting American Indian ancestry to mitochondrial lineages A, B, C, D and X has remained intact. When direct-to-the-consumer DNA testing became available in 2000, commercial companies hopped on the abecedarian bandwagon. To paraphrase Henry Ford, you could have an Indian DNA test say anything you wanted as long as it was A, B, C, D and sometimes X. But were these haplogroup rules possibly equivocal and not conclusively decidable anyway?

Etched in stone along with the five classic Native American mitochondrial haplogroups has emerged a belief that all American Indians can be traced to a single entry from Siberia roughly 10,000 years ago across the Bering Strait, supposed at that time to have formed a land bridge. This prevailing notion was summarized and defended by Kemp and Schurr (2010). According to University of Florida doctoral dissertation writer Joseph Andrew Park Wilson, "Today it is rare to find a molecular anthropologist who favors more than two distinct migration events, and a majority of researchers are enamored with the single-origin hypothesis, which postulates just one founding group ancestral to all Native Americans." Wilson cites the following studies in support of this observation:  Bonatto and Salzano 1997; Fagundes et al. 2008; Goebel et al. 2008; Kolman et al. 1996; Merriwether et al. 1995; Mulligan et al. 2004; Rubicz et al. 2002; Stone and Stoneking 1998; Tamm et al. 2007; Tarazona-Santos and Santos 2002; Zegura et al. 2004 (p. 102).

Band-aids on the Battleship
This "A-D" thesis continues to stand with minor alterations. Perego et al. (2009) proposed on the basis of phylogeographic analysis of 69 mitochondrial types a  "simultaneous but independent Asian source populations for early American colonists." But this modification of the theory involving "two roads taken" still kept within the A-D canon and maintained the primacy of the Bering land bridge (aided in a minor way by a seaborne route from Asia using the "kelp road").

After extensive examination of the subject Wilson concludes that the five mtDNA haplogroups actually have complex, multilayered histories. Setting aside the initial colonization of the Americas with its foundational genetic imprint, a host of unsolved questions about the remainder of the pre-Columbian period persist as problematic, including the number, timing, impact, duration, direction and scale of movements between the Old World and New World. Moreover, the genetic story represents only one of the pieces of the puzzle; other evidence to be harmonized into a coherent "archeogenetic narrative" are languages and material culture (pp. 141-42).

Torroni and Wallace (then at Emory and La Sapienza in Rome, respectively) were apparently the first to use the term "anomalous" of mitochondrial types. However, in their important letter to the editor of the American Journal of Human Genetics in May 1995, they applied it rather narrowly to "a heterogeneous set of mtDNAs due either to recent genetic admixture or to new mutations that have abolished a preexisting primary marker," in other words to non-conforming types within the A-D paradigm.

Utterly "foreign" anomalies only came within the sights of geneticists in 2013, when a devastating shockwave hit the archeological establishment. At the epicenter was Danish researcher Eske Willerslev, who reported on two 24,000-year-old Siberian skeletons at the "First Americans Archeology" conference in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  The fullest sequencing of ancient human DNA to date suggested that the people who lived near Lake Baikal at the dawn of human civilizations, and who later developed into the Native Americans of the New World, came more proximately from a westernly direction in Europe, not from Asia. Moreover, the mitochondrial haplogroup of the so-called Mal'ta boy the Danish team sequenced was U, a "non-Indian" type (M. Raghavan et al. 2014). The term anomalous now extended to entire haplogroups that did not fit the mold.

On the face of it, no haplotyping study can distinguish between deep ancestry and more recent admixture as the cause of unusual variations in DNA. Whereas tools like "time to coalescence," bootstrapping and phylogenetic trees can be used to compare types and estimate genetic distance, no logarithm can tell the geneticist where any given haplotype may have arisen and become characteristic. Projections of the source, spread, mutation and survival of uni-parental haplotypes can be deceptive, especially when they telescope tens of thousands and sometimes hundreds of thousands of years.

Navajo Puzzles
To consider an apposite question from Navajo research, we might ask when did certain Asian genes in the modern-day Diné matching 4000-year-old DNA from Siberia and the Tarim Basin travel to the Americas? It could have been 20,000 years ago or it could have been in the 16th century. The "genetic signature" could have arrived by gradual "star-like" diffusion or through one or more discontinuous movements, some possibly seaborne, some repetitive, some marked by diversity of types, some non-diverse, some minor, some major, some conceivably separated from each other by centuries or millennia. Similar problems beset any modeling of tribally-specific genetic scenarios. As the Jones white paper pointed out long ago, geneticists have a tendency to take the long view and telescope genetic incidents. They often rely solely on statistical modeling applying classical evolutionary components like random mating and natural selection and do not take concerted account of histories, archeology, cultural baggage like myth and religion, and family or clan genealogies. 

So far, autosomal DNA analysis has not assumed a large role in elucidating haplogroup history and the subject of admixture. The Centre for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen's Natural History Museum of Denmark has led the way with a new "dual ancestry" model augmenting the A-D thesis. The current issue of Archaeology contains the heretical suggestion that "the earliest travelers to the New World made their way more than 20,000 years ago from what is now the west coast of France and northern Spain" (Swaminathan, p. 25), but this seems to be just another shot in the dark. A quite recent autosomal study of European DNA headed by Harvard's David Reich identified three ancestral populations on the basis of ancient DNA, one of which is Willerslev's "ancient North Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians," called ANE (Lazaridis et al. 2014). Belonging to haplogroup U, and sharing some alleles with 8,000-year-old Scandinavian hunter-gatherers, ANE is thus an ancient link between Europeans and Native Americans, one quite separate incidentally from Turkic Chuvash and N-dominated Saami, both of which "are more related to east Asians than can be explained by ANE admixture" (p. 412). Haplogroup U has thus been established as an ancient founding haplogroup in Native American populations, dating back 24,000 years ago to the same time period as the A-D canon.

It is to be hoped that genetics will embark on a fundamental new beginning for the study of American Indian haplotypes rather than continue to repair outworn theories. Promisingly for Cherokee research, Willerslev's team in Denmark has included several participants in the present project as part of a larger study. The Danish initiative has sampled the 35,000 members of the Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama:  Dr. Joel E. Harris, Sr. maintains a communication page.

Photo above:  Participant #56, Karen Freeman Worstell, a risk management professional in Gig Harbor, Washington. Worstell tested as having a very rare T* that matched Cherokees on official rolls, even though T is universally considered a non-Indian type. She says, "I was always told we were Cherokee by my mother." Her T haplotype exactly matched two participants in Phase I of the DNA Cherokee Project, both relatives of Patrick Pynes, a professor of indigenous studies in Arizona. Pynes has traced the line to Mildred Gentry (1792-1852) and Nancy Gentry (b. 1801), daughters of the wife of Tyree Gentry, sometimes named as Delilah.  

Karen Worstell's grandmother Odessa Shields Cox (shown with her husband William M. Cox and Karen's mother Ethel about 1922) was born about 1904 in Indian Territory. "As for my family's oral history," says Worstell, "there was tremendous secrecy about anything related to my Indian background. My grandfather used to call me 'squaw,' which would infuriate my mother. My mother cut off all connection with her own mother sometime before I was born. My grandmother has strikingly Indian features and I do wonder if perhaps she was an adopted Indian child." 


Nae Boots commented on 03-Oct-2014 10:33 PM

at least they can't call my grandma a liar anymore. and that is good enough for now.

Janice Maxwell commented on 24-Mar-2015 11:36 AM

I have had my DNA done a few years ago. I am in the Hap group "T". I have Cherokee heritage from my mother and my father. How can I get involved with the Native American studies. I would like to see where my results fit in with the other Cherokee people.

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Jesse Montes: Where Do I Come From

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

I grew up in the Southwest in Richmond, California. My father was from Guayama, Puerto Rico, and my mother was from Maui, Hawaii. My paternal great grandparents kept a diary and worked in the sugarcane, tobacco, and coffee fields and told stories of the Taino Indians from the island of Boriken near Puerto Rico.  My mother’s side migrated to Hawaii from Spain and Puerto Rico to work in the pineapple and sugar cane fields. My mom and relatives were in Pearl Harbor and some served in WWII.

My mom's maternal grandmother was born near Ponce, Puerto Rico. 

I knew that I had Spanish and heard there might be some Native American from my grandparents, but I did not know for sure. I always had a gut feeling I was Native American, but I did not know how to confirm this until I took the DNA Fingerprint Plus and your Native American DNA test. My Dad talked about having some Taino Indian, and I thought maybe I had a trace. I did not know. I was always very curious about my ancestry.

It was a big surprise to me what the tests showed! I have a Spanish name, but the Native American DNA test showed that I have Native American on both sides and have a match to Taino and possibly Cherokee. My Native American haplogroup, C1, is relatively rare and corresponds to Taino lineage.  I am assuming the Taino is on my Dad’s side and the Cherokee is on my mom’s side. The latter was especially surprising since I am from the Southwest. I have not done any other DNA testing, but my sister did. She did a DNA test from another company and was told said she had Cherokee which we thought odd, but this is just more confirmation. My DNA Fingerprint Plus report said the Spanish and French enslaved and resettled many Native Americans to the highlands of Puerto Rico, so I imagine that is where I got Cherokee ancestry. Also, the DNA Fingerprint Plus showed I have top matches to Native American populations in my world and megapopulations. It was a big surprise to discover I have so much Native American. Oh, and I discovered I also have some Jewish in my ancestry which was quite a surprise.

I am hoping to now be able to connect with some of my ancestors online on my mom’s side to discover even more from the Native American DNA test and to join the Dr. Yates’ Cherokee Project with DNA Consultants. Dr. Yates believes my mother’s line is Cherokee. I am very excited about that. You guys have my full support. I finally know who I am! This has helped me very much. It isn’t that it was just useful to me. This is a useful tool that would help everyone find out who they are. God bless you and what you are doing. You are a dynamic duo and have given me a golden key. I always had a gut feeling that I was Native American, and it was such a relief to find out I have a strong line of it from my mother. I am usually a very quiet person, but I am so excited about this that I want to be recognized. This is me! 

52-year-old Cherokee DNA Project Phase II Participant No. 20, Jesse Montes of Richmond, Calif., was interviewed by Teresa Panther-Yates, Vice President of Communications, August 6, 2014.


Luis Alberto commented on 27-Sep-2014 11:06 AM

Mr. Montes. I am glad of your findings. one of my family lines is Montes also. And, from Mayaguez, PR

The quest for blood lines is been here forever, Even before DNA was a fact of life.

The main thing in all these findings is that you are a perfect example of what you and all of us are.

Not only a part but as a whole we are member of the Human Race. Rejoice!
A single grain of sand that we contribute to rebuild our decadent society will be of great help, Nothing else, Nothing more. my fellowman.


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Nobody Can Tell Me Who I Am

Friday, September 19, 2014

Postings from the Edge

By Donald N. Yates

They called her Mother Qualla—a stately, bluish-gray skinned schoolteacher in New York with angular features, thin lips and quick, intelligent eyes. Brian Wilkes and I drove her to her motel room at a meeting of the Southwestern Cherokee Confederacy in Albany, Georgia.

That was twenty years ago but I shall never forget Mother Qualla's take on Indian recognition. She listened to our stories, looked at us sternly and said, "No one can tell me WHO I AM!"

Such words could well serve as the mantra of more than a hundred dedicated genealogy seekers in DNA Consultants' Cherokee DNA Project who are proving the geneticists wrong. Participants in Phase II received a thank-you email from the company September 20 that provided many with the confirmation they had long sought in vain from previous testing.

"I always had a gut feeling that I was Native American," said San Pablo, Calif. resident Jesse Montes, a fortyish Latino who resembles nothing so much as Sir Joshua Reynolds' 1762 portrait of Ostenaco. "It was a big surprise and relief to discover I am Indian in both my father's male and my mom's female line, just as family stories said we were." His mitochondrial sample turned out to be haplogroup C, the type of Cherokee Beloved Woman Nancy Ward and a whole line of chiefs from the Wolf Clan, including Dragging Canoe.

Although none of the participants previously knew each other, many found out they were related as descendants of the same Cherokee ancestor and evidently belonged to the same clan. Indeed, several were adoptees totally uninformed about their ancestry before joining the project.

Juanita Sims was one of the frustrated clients of previous testing, which can often be cut-and-dry, case-closed on the matter of who is Indian. Said niece Elizabeth DeLand, "She originally had the test done because her grandmother and great-grandmother spoke Cherokee and she is trying to find it in her DNA." Sims proved to have a rare form of U5a1 DNA, fully matching a woman born in Walker County, Alabama, in 1828. DeLand enrolled her aunt as Participant #67 in the study, one of the last to be accepted.

Under the rules of Family Tree DNA's Cherokee DNA Project, "Native American mtDNA Haplogroups are A, B, C, D and X," and any others are ineligible. The Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and United Keetoowah Band adopt similar restrictions for what they consider "true" American Indian DNA types.

Of the 67 participants, eleven of them (16%) tested with other companies first, including Family Tree DNA, Ancestry.com and DNA Diagnostics Center. On the other hand, about half (47%) got first-time test results from DNA Consultants' service lab, Genex Diagnostics of Vancouver, British Columbia. About a third tested with Sorenson Genomics of Salt Lake City, Utah, a source used by the company in the first two years of the phase's existence. Two participants did not want to reveal the identity of their lab.

Despite not having to pay for benefits of being included in the study, all candidates had to purchase either a Native American Test or Report Only analysis. As a measure of their passion to find answers, they collectively spent an estimated $50,000 between one company or other, according to Holli Starnes, project administrator and assistant principal investigator.

In addition to cross-comparisons within the project, all participants will be now compared to 135 mitochondrial records from the Cherokee DNA project assembled in 2002-2011 under the aegis of the late Chief Joe White and longtime administrator Marcy Palmer of the Central Band of Cherokee.

According to Jan Ravenspirit Franz, webmaster for the CBC, this project was closed and reorganized by its sponsor Family Tree DNA, where it currently lists 51 members, but the wishes of the original participants are being respected and all data has been maintained for continuing analysis.

In a preliminary tabulation, 16% of participants proved to have direct female descent in "standard" American Indian haplogroups A, B, C, D and X. The majority (84%) had what are commonly recognized as "non-Indian" haplogroups.

With surnames like Allen, Harris and Wilson (four of these), and Little Bear, Thundereagle and Buitenhuis, they joined from Tennessee, Washington State, Oklahoma, Texas and Connecticut. Some verified ancestors they knew about from the paper trail; others met new figures on the trail blazed by modern genetics. One matched Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans; another, Cherokee Beloved Woman Nancy Ward (haplogroup C).

"My grandmother and her family always said we were Cherokee and I know that they were afraid of looking too brown and would always stay out of the sun," wrote one participant. "They didn't want to be connected to Native Americans at all. I feel like I have missed part of my heritage and would like to know if this story is true."

She happened to have haplogroup H, a controversial type for Indian ancestry, but matched three possible Cherokee descendants and no one else.

Another, who happened to bear the African haplogroup L3, matched several ancestors claimed by others in the records and reported to be Cherokee. A similar L3 turned up in a California man and was reported in A Te Anu, a Muscogee Creek woman.

One man, an adoptee, managed to get his adoption papers opened on the strength of his DNA testing. His mitochondrial DNA was a rare form of T* that coincidentally matched that of others in the project, and no one else in the world.

As in Phase I, rare T haplotypes accounted for about one-fifth of participants and was the leading anomalous Cherokee type. H and U, as well as K and J were also prominent. New additions came in the form of W (2), N (1), L (6), I (2) and V (1).

Two participants (B and U) had family stories they were Jewish.

Surnames of Individuals Tested

Afshari Allen Alvarez Anonymous Barrios Benjamin Benning Brill Buitenhuis Carpenter Carter (2) Cazee Chatterton Clark Dulaney England Epstein Espinoza Francisco (2) Franz (2) Guillermo Gurule Harris Haynes James Keating Kellam Kubik Lambert Little Bear Melton Montes Murphy Nagy Nielsen Perez Ponder Poole Pyle Rahamim Redding Rogalla Rymes Santos-Montanez Sexton Shipman Shippley Sims Sponenburgh Stritzel Stults Swinney Thundereagle Van Poperin Walker (2) Ward Williams Wilson (4) Worstell Young.


James E. Walker commented on 23-Sep-2014 03:54 PM

Thanx guys for all your Great work,i can see this is going to be good reading.James

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DNA Consultants Method in a Nutshell

Monday, July 21, 2014
We often are asked, "How does your ancestry analysis work," and "What makes it different from other methods?" Principal Investigator Donald Yates was recently interviewed along these lines and here are his answers.

How do DNA ancestry tests work—or not work? It is fairly simple to explain the difference between first-generation tests that looked at your sex-linked lines and the new wave of admixture and population match tests that examine your whole ancestry.  The pitfalls of Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplotying tests are well known: information limited to only two lines in your tree, irrelevant broad matches instead of valid exact matches, false results from non-paternity events, outdated genetic theories about human prehistory and historical migrations and so forth. So-called "percentage tests" did little to alleviate the situation. Now many companies are claiming to test thousands of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). However, the inferences linked to these are mostly still based on sex-linked data, medical studies and haplotype surveys. That is not truly an autosomal method, since the meaning of autosomal is non-sex-linked.  The DNA profile method (CoDIS markers) offers the next best thing to "percentage tests." Using true autosomal data and capturing published STR values for world populations, it calculates your random match frequencies and can probabilistically predict ancestry according to several parameters, including metapopulations, megapopulations, ethnic marker affinity and rare alleles.

Above:  Each test in the DNA Fingerprint family of products starts with a 16-loci DNA fingerprint or profile from the lab. Green indicates the so-called "core CoDEX" loci, which yield the greatest coverage in population data. Yellow shows four additional ones for which there is a lesser number of populations, and blue shows two extra loci used in the European system (our EURO section). 

For more information

Autosomal DNA Set to Rewrite History of "Peopling of the Americas" (announcement)
Emerging Prehistory of Ethnic Groups (blog post)
Autosomal Testing Revalidated (blog post)


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Rare Genes from History Revisited

Thursday, June 19, 2014
Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300 

It's been a year and a half since DNA Consultants introduced Rare Genes from History. We republish here the original press release from October 2012 as a means of familiarizing new and old customers with this unique autosomal marker test, exclusive to our company. Purchase now for only $149 ($134.10 with your customer discount).

For descriptions of all 26 Rare Genes from History, visit the product page

If you have received your Rare Genes from History results, we encourage you to discuss them with others in the free forums at DNA Communities. How many did you get? Were they European, Native American, African or Asian? Do you think you got a given rare gene from your mother or father? From both?


Rare Genes from History:  DNA Consultants’ Next-Generation Ancestry Markers

PHOENIX -- (Oct. 1, 2012) -- DNA typing has gone from successes in the criminal justice system and paternity testing to new heights in mapping genetic diseases and tracing human history. John Butler in the conclusion to his textbook Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing raised an important question about these trends. How might genetic genealogy information intersect with forensic DNA testing in the future?

"At DNA Consultants, that new chapter in DNA testing arrived several years ago," said Donald Yates, chief research officer and founder. "As we approach our tenth anniversary, examining human population diversity continues to be the whole thrust of our research, and it just gets more and more exciting."

The company's DNA database atDNA 4.0 captures and puts to use every single published academic study on forensic STR markers, the standard CoDIS markers used in DNA profiles for paternity and personal identification. In 2009, the company introduced the first broad-scale ethnicity markers and created the DNA Fingerprint Plus.

But its innovations didn’t stop there. In October 2012, the company announced the launch of its Rare Genes from History Panel.

Why CoDIS Markers?

“Theoretically,” noted Butler in 2009, “all of the alleles (variations) that exist today for a particular STR locus have resulted from only a few ‘founder’ individuals by slowly changing over tens of thousands of years.”

How true! Hospital studies have determined that the most stable loci (marker addresses on your chromosomes) have values that mutate at a rate of only 0.01%. That means the chance of the value at that location changing from parent to progeny is once every 10,000 generations.

So the autosomal clock of human history ticks at an even slower quantum rate than mitochondrial DNA. Like “mitochondrial Eve,” its patterns were set down in Africa over 100,000 years ago when anatomically modern humans first appeared on the stage of time.

Though the face value of the cards in the deck of human diversity never changed—and all alleles can be traced back to an African origin—as humans left Africa and eventually spread throughout the world, alleles were shuffled and reshuffled. Humanity went through bottlenecks and expansions that emphasized certain alleles over others. Genetic pooling, drift and selection of mates produced regional and country-specific contours much like a geographic map. 

"These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals."

By the twentieth century, when scientists began to assemble the first genetic snapshots of people, it was found that nearly all populations were mixed, some more than others. The geneticist Luigi-Luca Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University proved that there is almost always more diversity within a population than between populations.

So if there is no such thing as a “pure” population—a control or standard—how are we to make sense of any single individual’s ancestral lines? Statistical analysis provides the answer. And rare genes are easier to trace in the genetic record than common ones. Their distinctive signature stands out.

Back Story:  It All Began with the Melungeons

About the same time as DNA Consultants' scientists were cracking the mystery of the Melungeons, a tri-racial isolate in the Appalachians, they became aware of certain very rare alleles carried by this unusual population in relatively large doses. The Starnes family, for instance, in Harriman, Tennessee, was observed to have a certain rare score repeated on one location in the profiles of members through three generations. The staff dubbed it “the Starnes gene.”

Soon, company research had characterized 26 rare autosomal ancestry markers—tiny, distinctive threads of inheritance that reflected an origin in Africa and expansion and travels through world history. Genes in this new generation of discoveries were named after some distinctive feature associated with the pattern they created in human genetic history--for instance, the Kilimanjaro Gene after its source in Central East Africa. The Thuya, Akhenaten and King Tut genes were named for the royal family of Egypt whose mummies were investigated by Zahi Hawass’ team in 2010.

The Starnes Gene” became the Helen Gene. Because of its apparent center in Troy in ancient Asia Minor and predilection for settling in island populations, it was named for "the face that launched a thousand ships," in the famous phrase by Christopher Marlowe.  

All 26 of DNA Consultants' new markers are rare. Not everyone is going to have one. But that’s what makes them interesting, according to Dr. Yates.

Coming from all sections of human diversity—African, Indian, Asian and Native American—they are like tiny gold filaments in a huge, outspread multi-colored tapestry, explains Phyllis Starnes, assistant principal investigator and wife of the namesake of the first discovery. But does that mean that her husband has a connection to Helen of Troy? The markers don’t work on such a literal level, but it does imply that Billy Starnes shares a part of his ancestral heritage with an ancient Greek/Turkish population prominent on the page of history.

Over the past two decades, geneticists have worked out the macro-history and chronology of human migrations in amazing detail and agreement. The Rare Genes from History Panel is another reminder--in the words of an American Indian ceremonial greeting--that “We Are All Related.”

These rare but robust signals of deep history can act as powerful ancestral probes into the tangled past of the human race as well as unique touchstones for the surprising stories of individuals.

For more information about the science of autosomal DNA ancestry testing, visit DNA Consultants or check out its Twitter or Facebook page. 

#  #  #  

Distribution map of the Egyptian Gene shows its African origin, partial presence in Coptic populations today (green dots in Egypt) and scattered incidence around the world. 


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Back to the Future of DNA

Tuesday, June 03, 2014

From Teresa Yates' work-in-progress, here is a post from eight years ago that still strikes a timely note. Yates' new book is titled DNA and You and reprises fifteen years of the blogosphere from the early, heroic days of DNA testing. It is expected to appear this summer.

Wild, Wooly World of DNA May Create, As Well As Solve, Problems

Abstracted from The New York Times

The first in a series of articles in the New York Times, titled "The DNA Age" presents case histories of people whose DNA tests are turning out to be mixed blessings, arousing more expectations than may be justified. From the adopted twins who are looking for financial aid after finding out they are part African and part Native American to the man raised a gentile attempting to invoke the law of return to Israel following the revelation his DNA matched Ashkenazi Jews, the series by Amy Harmon apparently intends to explore the two sides of DNA—the answers it brings, along with the new questions it raises.

On another front, Indian tribes routinely refuse to accept DNA evidence. According to the article, though, this has not deterred prospective new enrollees. "It used to be 'someone said my grandmother was an Indian,' " says Joyce Walker, the enrollment clerk who regularly turns away DNA petitioners for the Mashantucket Pequot tribe, which operates the lucrative Foxwoods Resort Casino in Connecticut. "Now it's 'my DNA says my grandmother was an Indian.'"

The title of the first of the series is "Seeking Ancestry in DNA Ties Uncovered by Tests." One of the featured DNA test takers was a customer of DNA Consultants.

April 13, 2006


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Virginia Surnames and Families with Possible Jewish (and Muslim) Roots

Friday, May 02, 2014

In our continuing series of notes on colonial genealogies, we give here the the complete appendix containing all early lists of emigrants to Virginia, taken from Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (2012). This was the second volume in a series that began with When Scotland Was Jewish (2007) and concludes this month (May 2014) with the publication of The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales: A Genetic and Genealogical History. Are any of your colonial ancestors listed? If they are it is likely they bore Jewish ancestry, even if they did not practice Judaism and even if they presented themselves as Christian. 

Left:  As discussed in the associated chapter, "Virginia - First and Not So English - Colony," William Byrd was undoubtedly crypto-Jewish.

From the book by Hirschman and Yates
"William Byrd, the ancestor of the Byrds of Virginia, was the son of John Bird, a London goldsmith.[i]  The earliest firm genealogical record for the family is mention of a Thomas Bird, apprenticed to Henry Sacheverell (Hebrew anagram),[ii] vintner, in 1608, subsequently admitted to the Wine Merchants Company in 1616.  Thomas Bird married his first cousin Elizabeth Bird.  It was Thomas’ son, John who became a goldsmith.  What is transparent from these records, given the occupations of wine merchant and goldsmith and first cousin marriage, is that the Birds/Byrds were Jewish.  Byrd was not an English name before this family became prominent. The first of that name probably came to England as a court musician like the Sephardic Anthons mentioned earlier:  a relative was William Byrd, the Renaissance court composer (circa 1540-1623). Publicly they were not Jewish, as Jews were officially banned from England until 1664. They were privately Jewish or crypto-Jewish as so many other persons in London at the time. It is likely that at least the first generation officially practiced Catholicism, the religion of their parent country. English custom in London and other major cities allowed Spanish and Portuguese Jews as foreigners to worship at their own parish churches, which were presumed to be Catholic.

            "William Byrd came to Virginia at the request of his uncle Captain Thomas Stegge, who was childless and designated William his heir.  Although the exact date is unknown, his arrival was probably around 1670.  The Stegges were traders with the Indians, primarily Catawbas and Cherokees, another profession markedly Jewish. Upon reaching adulthood and receiving his inheritance, Bird entered the lucrative triangular trade between Virginia, Barbados and Africa. Tobacco, deerskins, sugar, rum, and slaves were the primary commodities of exchange. Typically, those who plied this trade imported slaves from Portuguese middlemen off the Guinea Coast of Africa. In Barbados, rum and sugar were taken onboard to be transported to Virginia. American planters paid for rum, sugar and slaves in tobacco or deerskins and received credit in England or Scotland paid out to them in manufactured goods supplied on the steady stream of ships carrying new colonists. Except for the profit margins of the merchants, frequently Jews, no money changed hands, this only in England, thus preserving the mother country’s prohibition about allowing specie to flow into the colonies or accumulate there.

            "In 1673 Byrd married Mary Horsmanden, whose lineage goes back to the St. Leger family of Cornwall mentioned in chapter one. Very importantly, biographer Alden Hatch tells us that this St. Leger family traced its ancestry back to Baudoin III, King of Jerusalem during the Crusades, who was evidently of Jewish descent.  Byrd soon became Receiver General of the King’s Revenue, as well as Auditor of Virginia. As Hatch notes, he both collected the taxes and audited them!

           "There are other strong cues regarding Bird’s ancestry and religious leanings.  Hatch states that Byrd “regarded Catholics as but one degree above the devils from hell.”  In 1699 when the Huguenots were under attack once again by a Catholic monarch, it was William Byrd of Virginia who championed their cause. About three hundred of them were brought to safety in Virginia and another two hundred the following year. “Largely as a result of the arguments presented by William Byrd to the Board of Trade, between 700 and 800 [Huguenots] settled in Virginia.”[iii]   Such activities are in complete conformity with the efforts begun in the late 1500s by Raleigh and Drake to settle their Sephardic and Morisco kinsmen in the New World.  Both Raleigh and Drake had assisted the Huguenots in France before and after the infamous St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572.  In the 1705 edition of his History, Robert Beverley wrote of “the Goodness and generosity of Colonel Byrd toward these distressed Huguenots.” Beverly goes on to say, 

Upon their first Arrival in that country, he [Byrd] received them with all the tenderness of a Father, and ever since has constantly given them the utmost assistance… employing all his Skill, and all his friends to advance their interest both publickly and privately….  What Liberties has he not all along allowed them on his own plantations to furnish themselves from thence Corn and other necessaries?  His Mills have been at their Service to grind their Corn toll-free….  With what Zeal did he represent their Cause to the Assembly?  And with what earnestness did he press all his Friends in their favor”?[iv]

Byrd was attended in his final days by one of them, his valet Jean Marat – who bears a common Sephardic/Arabic surname.

            "William Byrd’s son William II was educated in England, where he learned Hebrew, Greek and Latin.  Micajah Perry (nearly invariably a Sephardic name, as we have seen) was William Byrd, Sr.’s factor and agent in London and looked after William Byrd Jr.’s welfare as a student abroad.  In 1705 young William returned to Virginia and took over the family’s several mercantile and milling interests.  He had an avid interest in medicine and special fascination with the properties (and profits) in ginseng. This was a root gathered by Melungeons and shipped as far away as China during the late 1700s by Daniel Boone and John Jacob Astor (“from Asturia”).  William Byrd II married Lucy Parke. Lucy’s sister Frances would later marry John Custis (Costas), probably of Sephardic ancestry.

            "Hatch also reports from transcriptions of Byrd’s private diary that he would read one or two chapters of the Bible in Hebrew every morning.  Since the Hebrew Bible does not contain the New Testament, we must assume that William was reading the Torah.  Hatch continues, “Byrd was very strict about keeping the Sabbath.  He would allow no work to be done that could possibly be avoided; and even when it could not be helped… he was uneasy in his conscience and sought a Biblical excuse.”  Also according to Hatch, Byrd “frequently ducked going to [Christian] church.”  In our view, these descriptions illustrate crypto-Jewish behavior (appendix B)."

--pp. 55-56, Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America © Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman and Donald N. Yates 2012

[i] Byrd  perhaps translated from Hebrew Zipporah, used of both males and females. In Germany, the Jewish surnames Vogel, Fogel and Feiglin are examples (Gorr 87). In general, see Alden Hatch, The Byrds of Virginia:  An American Dynasty, 1670 to the Present (New York:  Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1969) esp. 36, 48, 51, 118, 141, 165. William Byrd the composer also married a cousin, Juliana (a favorite Jewish name) Byrd (1568). Their children were Christopher (a good crypto-Jewish name), Elizabeth, Rachel (Hebrew), Mary, Catherine, Thomas and Edward.

[ii] Sacheverell appears to be derived from a contraction of Hebrew zera kodesh “holy seed,” as in the names Sachs, Saks and the like (Menk  641).

[iii] The respective Huguenot ancestors of author Donald Yates and his wife Teresa, Jean Pierre Bondurant (from Bon and Duran) and Pierre Prevot/Prevatt (Templar name from the Channel Islands), came on the same ship the Peter and Anthony.

[iv]Robert Beverley, The History of the Present State of Virginia (London:  R. Parker, 1705). 


Appendix E


Lists of Emigrants to Virginia 1585-1700



Given in this appendix are traditional lists of names for the earliest colonists in Virginia. The names generally are listed in the order and spelling of the source records. We have added some glosses and annotations in parentheses and notes.

The Names of Lane’s Colonists (1585)

The names of all those… that remained one whole yeere in Virginia under the Governement of Master Ralfe Lane.[1] National Park Service.

Master Philip Amades, Admirall of the countrie

Master Hariot

Master Acton

Master Edward Stafford

Thomas Luddington

Master Marvyn

Master Gardyner

Captaine Vaughan

Master Kendall

Master Prideox

Robert Holecroft

Rise Courtney

Master Hugh Rogers

Thomas Foxe

Edward Hugen

Darby Glande

Edward Kelle

John Gostigo

Erasmus Clefs

Edward Ketcheman

John Linsey

Thomas Rottenbury

Roger Deane

John Harris

Master Thomas Harvie

Master Smelling

Master Anthony Russe

Master Allyne

Maste Michel Polyson

John Cage

Thomas Parre

William Randes

Geffrey Churchman

William Farthowe

John Taylor

Philppe Robyns

Thomas Phillippes

Valentine Beale

James Skinner

George Eseven

John Chaundeler

Philip Blunt

Richard Poore

Robert Yong

Marmaduke Constable

Thomas Hesket

William Wasse

John Fever


Frauncis Norris

Mathewe Lyne

Edward Kettell (Catteil?)

Thomas Wisse

Robert Biscombe

William Backhouse

William White

Henry Potkin

Dennis Barnes

Joseph Borges

Doughan Gannes

William Tenche

Randall Latham

Thomas Hulme

Walter Myll

Richard Gilbert

Steven Pomarie (Pomerie)

John Brocke

Bennett Harrye

James Stevenson

Christopher Lowde

Jeremie Man

James Mason

David Salter

Richard Ireland

Thomas Bookener (Buchener)

William Philippes

Randall Mayne

Thomas Taylor

Richard Humfrey

John Wright

Gabriell North

Bennet Chappell

Richard Sare

James Sare

James Lasie


Thomas Smart


John Evans

Roger Large

Humfrey Garden

Frauncis Whitton

Rowland Griffyn

William Millard

John Twyt

Edwarde Seklemore

John Anwike

Christopher Marshall

David Williams

Nicholas Swabber

Edward Chipping

Sylvester Beching

Vincent Cheyne

Haunce Walters

Edward Barecombe

Thomas Skevelabs

William Walters

The Names of the 1587 Virginia Colonists

The names of all the men, women and Children, which safely arrived in Virginia, and remained to inhabite there. 1587. Anno Regni Reginae Elizabethae.29. National Park Service.

John White [Governor]

Roger Bailie [Assistant]

Ananias Dare [Assistant]

Christopher Cooper [Asst.]

Thomas Stevens [Assistant]

John Sampson [Assistant]

Dyonis Harvie [Assistant]

Roger Prat [Assistant]

George Howe [Assistant]

Simon Fernando [Assistant]

Nicholas Johnson

Thomas Warner

Anthony Cage

John Jones

John Tydway

Ambrose Viccard

Edmond English

Thomas Topan

Henry Berrye

Richard Berrye

John Spendlove

John Hemmington

Thomas Butler

Edward Powell

John Burden

James Hynde

William Willes

John Brooke

Cutbert White

John Bright

Clement Tayler


Elyoner Dare

Margery Harvie

Agnes Wood

Wenefrid Powell

Joyce Archard

Jane Jones

Elizabeth Glane

Jane Pierce

Audry Tappan

Alis Chapman

Emme Merrimoth


Margaret Lawrence

William Sole

John Cotsmur

Humfrey Newton

Thomas Colman

Thomas Gramme

Marke Bennet

John Gibbes

John Stilman

Robert Wilkinson

Peter Little

John Wyles

Brian Wyles

George Martyn

Hugh Pattenson

Martyn Sutton

John Farre

John Bridger

Griffin Jones

Richard Shaberdge

Thomas Ellis

William Browne

Michael Myllet

Thomas Smith

Richard Taverner

Thomas Harris

Richard Taverner

John Earnest

Henry Johnson

John Starte

Richard Darige

William Lucas

Joan Warren

Jane Mannering

Rose Payne

Elizabeth Viccars

Arnold Archard

John Wright

William Dutton

Morris Allen

William Waters

Richard Arthur

John Chapman

William Clement

Robert Little

Hugh Taylor

Richard Wildye

Lewes Wotton

Michael Bishop

Henry Browne

Henry Rufoote

Richard Tomkins

Henry Dorrell

Charles Florrie

Henry Mylton

Henry Payne

Thomas Harris

William Nicholes

Thomas Phevens

John Borden

Thomas Scot

James Lasie

John Cheven

Thomas Hewet

William Berde

Boys and Children

John Sampson

Robert Ellis

Ambrose Viccars

Thomas Archard

Thomas Humfrey

Thomas Smart

George Howe

John Prat

William Wythers

Children Born in Virginia

Virginia Dare






Original Settlers (May 14, 1607) at Jamestown, Listed by Occupation.[2]

Source:  Virtual Jamestown; The First Residents of Jamestown.[3]



Master Edward Maria Wingfield, President

Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll

Captaine John Smyth (or Smith)

Captaine John Ratliffe (or Ratcliffe)

Captaine John Martin

Captaine George Kendall


Master Robert Hunt

Preacher and Gentleman

Master George Percy

Anthony Gosnoll

George Flower

Captaine Gabriell Archer

Robert Fenton

Robert Ford

William Bruster (or Brewster)

Edward Harrington

Dru Pickhouse (or Pigasse)

Thomas Jacob, Sergeant

John Brookes

Ellis Kingston (or Kiniston)

Thomas Sands

Benjamin Beast (Best)

John (or Jehu) Robinson (Melungeon name)

Ustis (or Eustace) Clovill

Stephen Halthrop

Kellam Throgmorton

Edward Morish (or Moris)

Nathaniell Powell

Edward Browne

Robert Behethland (or Betheland)

John Penington

Jeremy (or Jerome) Alicock

George Walker

Thomas Studley (or Stoodie)

Richard Crofts

Nicholas Houlgrave

Thomas Webbe

John Waller

John Short (Melungeon name)

William Tankard

William Smethes

Francis Snarsbrough

Richard Simons

Edward Brookes

Richard Dixon

John Martin

Roger Cooke

George Martin

Anthony Gosnold

Thomas Wotton (Wooten), Surgeon

John Stevenson

Henry Adling (or Adding)

Thomas Gower

Thomas Gore

Francis Midwinter

Richard Frith

Stephen Galthorpe (Goldthorp)


William Laxton

Edward Pising

Thomas Emry

Robert Small


John Herd (Heard)

William Garret


William Cassen (or Cawsen)

George Casson

Thomas Casson

Willam Rods (or Rodes = Rhodes)

William White (Melungeon name)

Ould Edward (perhaps a Scot or Irishman)

Henry Tavin (or Tauin: from Hebrew)

George Golding (or Goulding)

William Johnson

William Vnger (or Unger, i.e., Hungarian)


Samuell Collier (Melungeon name)

James Brumfield

Richard Mutton (or Mullon=Mullin:  Melungeon name)

Boys (i.e. servants)

Anas Todkill, Soldier

Jonas Profit, Sailor, Fisher, Soldier (Melungeon name)

Thomas Couper (or Cowper: Melungeon name), Barber

Edward Brinto (or Brinton), Mason, Soldier

William Loue (or Love:  Melungeon name), Tailor, Soldier

Nicholas Skot (or Scot), Drummer

John Laydon (i.e., from Leiden), Labourer, Carpenter

John Dods (Dodds), Labourer, Soldier

William Wilkinson, Surgeon

James Read (Melungeon name), Blacksmith, Soldier

Nathaniel Pecock (or Peacock), Boy, Sailor, Soldier

Mathew Morton, Sailor


John Asbie (Melungeon name)

Andrew Buckler

John Capper (perhaps Cooper)

William Dier (or Dye: Melungeon name)

Thomas Mounslie

Thomas Mouton

a Dutchman




Mariners and Others Known to Have Been with the Expedition that Established Jamestown on May 13, 1607. [4]


Source:  The First Residents of Jamestown.

Browne, Oliver

Clarke, Charles (Melungeon name)

Collson, John  Mariner

Cotson, John   Mariner

Deale, Jeremy

Fytch, Mathew  Mariner

Genoway, Richard (from Genoa?)

Godword, Thomas

Jackson, Robert (Melungeon name)

Markham, Robert

Nellson, Francys

Poole, Jonas

Skunner, Thomas

Turnbrydge (or Turbridge), Thomas

Newport, Christopher  Captain, Councilor

Tyndall, Robert  Mariner, Gunner

White, Benjamyn (Melungeon name)





Jamestown Colonists on the Resupply Ship, 1608


Source:  National Park Service.


Thomas Abbay

Jeffery Abbot

Rob Alberton

David Aphugh

Robert Barnes

William Bayley

Gabriel Beadle

John Beadle

William Beckwith

Richard Belfield

Henry Bell

William Bentley

John Bouth

Thomas Bradley

Richard Bristow

Richard Burket

Anne Burras

John Burras

James Burre

George Burton

William Cantrell

Nathaniell Causy

John Clarke

Thomas Coe

Henry Collings

Robert Cotton

Raleigh Crowhaw

John Cuderington

Robert Culter

John Dauxe

Thomas Dawse

Will Dawson

Richard Dole

William Dowman

David Ellis

Richard Featherstone

Thomas Field

Unknown Floud

George Forest

Unknown Forest

Thomas Forest

Thomas Fox

Thomas Gibson

Post Ginnat

Raymond Goodison

Richard Gradson

Thomas Graves

William Grivell

Edward Gurgana

Nicholas Handcock

Unknown Hardwyn

Harmon Harrison

George Hill

Unknown Hilliard

Thomas Hope

John Hoult

Unknown Hunt

Wil Johnson

Peter Keffer

Richard Killingbeck

Thomas Lavander

Timothy Leeds

Henry Leigh

John Lewes

Michael Lowick

Thomas Mallard

Thomas Maxes

William May

Unknown Michaell

Unknown Milman

Richard Milmer

Unknown Morley

Ralph Morton

Richard Mullinax

Rawland Nelstrop

John Nichols

Thomas Norton

Dionis O'Connor

William Perce

Francis Perkins

Thomas Phelps

Henry Philpot

Michaell Phittiplace

William Phittiplace

Peter Pory

Richard Pots

Unknown Powell

John Powell

John Prat

George Pretty

Richard Prodger

David Pugh

Christopher Rods

Unknown Rose

Unknown Russell

John Russell

William Russell

William Sambage

Richard Savage

Thomas Savage

Unknown Scot

Mathew Scrivener

Jeffrey Shortridge

Michaell Sicklemore

WIlliam Simons

John Spearman

William Spence

Dani Stallings

John Taverner

William Tayler

Lawrence Towtales

Daniel Tucker

Nicholas Ven

Unknown Vere

Richard Waldo

Unknown Walker

William Ward

James Watkins

Francis West

Unknown Wiles

Unknown Williams

Hugh Winne

Peter Winne

Hugh Wolleston

Richard Worley

George Yarington

William Younge



Sea Venture Passengers


Sources: 1) the Generall Historie of  the Bermudas by Captain John Smith 1624, reprint 1966; 2) Bermuda – Unintended Destination by Terry Tucker, 1982.


Sir Thomas Gates, Governor for Virginia

Sir George Somers, Admiral of the flotilla

Rev Richard, chaplain to the expedition

William Strachney, Secretary-elect of Virginia Company

Silvester Jourdain, of Lyme Regis, Dorset

Joseph Chard

Mr. Henry Shelly

Robert Walsingham, cockswain

Robert Frobisher, shipwright

Nicholas Bennit, carpenter

Francis Pearepoint

William Brian

William Martin

Henry Ravens, master mate; lost at sea when he sailed for help

Richard Knowles

Stephen Hopkins

Christopher Carter deserted and stayed behind on the island

Robert Waters who deserted and stayed behind on the island

Edward Waters

Samuel Sharpe

Henry Paine, shot to death for mutiny

Humfrey Reede

James Swift

Thomas Powell, cook

Edward Eason

Mistress Eason

Baby boy Bermuda Eason, born in Bermuda to the above

John Want

Mistress Horton

Elizabeth Persons, maid to Mistress Horton; married Thomas Powell while in Bermuda

Capt (Sir) George Yeardley, experienced veteran of the Dutch wars

Jeffrey Briars (died in Bermuda)

Richard Lewis, died in Bermuda

Edward Samuel, murdered by Robert Waters

William Hitchman, died in Bermuda

Thomas Whittingham, lost at sea with Ravens (above)

Edward Chard who stayed behind on the island

Captain Matthew Somers nephew and heir of Sir George, was aboard the “Swallow” on the same expedition

Robert Rich*, the brother of Sir Nathaniel Rich, a shareholder.  Was a soldier.  Returned to Bermuda 1617 and died there 1630.

Christopher Newport*, Captain of the Sea Venture, former privateer

Stephen Hopkins*

John Rolfe*, a young man in his twenties and traveling with his wife.  Their baby girl was born in Bermuda, christened Bermudas and died shortly thereafter.  His wife died shortly after reaching Virginia Spring 1610 and he married Pocahontas in April 1614.

Mistress Rolfe, first wife of above

*Royal Naval Dockyard Museum, Somerset, Bermuda (Tucker’s Note).

Additional persons listed as arriving at Jamestown in the Patience and the Deliverance (and therefore assumed to be aboard the Sea Venture when it wrecked at Bermuda). Source:  Cavaliers and Pioneers by Nell Marion Nugent (1963).

Henry Bagwell, aged 35 in Deliverance

Thomas Godby, aged 36 in the Deliverance

Edward Waters, aged 40 in the Patience

Elizabeth Joons, aged 30, servant

John Lytefoote

John Proctor

Virginia Historical Index by Swem

According to the original records, “As a results of the efforts, Sir Thomas Gates as sole and absolute Governor, with Sir George Summers, Admiral, and Capt. Newport, Vice Admiral of Virginia, and divers and other persons of ran four cke and quality in seven ships and two pinnaces, left Falmouth on the 8 of June 1609, and on the 24 day of July, 1609 they encountered a terrible storm that prevailed from Tuesday noone till Friday noone; that scattered the fleet and wrecked The Sea Venture (on July 28 1609) upon the island of Bermuda.”

Francis Michell lived at Elizabeth Citty February 1623 and Josuah Chard, aged 36, who came in the Sea Venture, May 1607.

Josuah Chard came in the SV

Purse and Person

The following came in the sea Ventura (from different pages)

p15 Henry Baguel

p22 Smauel Sharp

p30 John Lightfoote

p31 Capt. Wm Pierce

p32 George Grave

p38 John Procter

p140 Richard Buck sailed June 1609 with wife, Miss Langley and four Buck children.  Marooned for 9 months embarked for Virginia from Bermuda 10 May 1610.  Arrived in Jamestown 21 May 1610.  He was a minister.  The four Buck children, Elizabeth, Bridget and Bermuda were born and died while their parent marooned on Somers Island (1609-1610) Mara born in Virginia 1611 ward of brother-in-law, John Burrows.

p374 Stephen Hopkins left England 9 June 1609 among 150 persons cast ashore etc etc then it states “Although there is no complete list of the shipwrecked party which eventually reached Jamestown in the two pinnaces Patience and Deliverance, built on the islands, Hopkins did not remain on The Somers Islands and the conclusion is that the recalcitrant came to Virginia despite his known wish to return to England.  (He went back to England and came on the Mayflower in 1620 to Plymouth, Mass.

No further connection with the Colony.

p475 Wm Pierce

p507 John Rolfe and wife . 9 months on Somers Island.  Wife died on Somers Island or shortly after arriving in Virginia.

p590 Wm Strachey from Surrey England b 1572 on SV, marooned 9 mo etc

p650 Lieut. Edward Waters on SV and on to Virginia Patience.

p724 George Yeardley

Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610) was born near Lyme Regis in Dorset, England of modest circumstances.  At an early age he took to the sea, and as a captain of the Flibcote he captured Spanish booty, bringing it back to Dartmouth.  He became a large landowner by his early thirties.  In 1609 he received orders to command an expedition to Virginia, mortgaged his property and outfitted the Sea Venture.  He left no direct descendants.



Walloon and French Colonists to Virginia (1621)


Source: Sainsbury, Calendar, pp. 498-99.

According to the original records, the settlers swore, “We promise my Lord Ambassador of the Most Serene King of Great Britain to go and inhabit in Virginia, a land under his Majesty’s obedience, as soon as conveniently may be, and this under the conditions to be carried out in the articles we have communicated to the said Ambassador, and not otherwise, on the faith of which we have unanimously signed this present with our sign manual”.  The signatures and the calling of each are appended in the form of a round robin, and in a outer circle the person signing states whether he is married, and the number of his children.  The charter is endorsed by Sir Dudley Carleton.

Signature of such Walloons and French as offer themselves to goe into Verginia”.  The names with an * have only signed their marks.  Total 227, including 55 men, 41 women, 129 children, and two servants.

Mousnier de la Montagne, medical student; marrying man

Mousnier de la Montagne, apothecary and surgeon; marrying man

Jacque Conne, tiller of the earth; wife and two children

Henry Lambert, woolen draper; wife

*George Beava, porter; wife and one child

Michel Du Pon, hatter; wife and two children

Jan Bullt, labourer; wife and four children

Paul de Pasar, weaver; wife and two children

Antoine Grenier, gardener; wife

Jean Gourdeman, labourer; wife and five children

Jean Campion, wool carder; wife and four children

*Jan De La Met, labourer; young man

*Antoine Martin’ wife and one child

Francois Fourdrin, leather dresser; young man

*Jan Leca, labourer; wife and five children

Theodore Dufour, draper; wife and two children

*Gillian Broque, labourer; young man

George Wauter, musician; wife and four children

*Jan Sage, serge maker; wife and six children

*Marie Flit, in the name of her husband, a miller; wife and two children

P. Gantois, student in theology; young man

Jacques de Lecheilles, brewer; marrying man

*Jan Le Rou, printer; wife and six children

*Jan de Croy, sawyer; wife and five children

*Charles Chancy, labourer; wife and two children

*Francois Clitdeu, labourer; wife and five children

*Phillippe Campion, draper; wife and one child

*Robert Broque, labourer; young man

Philip De le Mer, carpenter; young man

*Jeanne Martin; young girl

Pierre Cornille, vine-dresser; young man

Jan de Carpentry, labourer; wife and two children

*Martin de Carpentier, brass founder; young man

Thomas Farnarcque, locksmith; wife and seven children

Pierre Gaspar

*Gregoire Le Juene, shoemaker; wife and four children

Martin Framerie, musician; wife and one child

Pierre Quesnee, brewer; marrying man

Pontus Le Gean, bolting-cloth weaver; wife and three children

*Barthelemy Digaud, sawyer; wife and eight children

Jesse de Foprest. Duer’ wife and five children

*Nicholas De la Marlier, dyer; wife and two children

*Jan Damont, labourer; wife

*Jan Gille, labourer; wife and three children

*Jan de Trou, wool carder; wife and five children

Philippe Maton, dyer, and two servants; wife and five children

Anthoine de Lielate, vinedresser; wife and four children

Ernou Catoir, wool carder; wife and five children

Anthoin Desendre, labourer; wife and one child

Agel de Crepy, shuttle worker; wife and four children

*Adrian Barbe, dyer; wife and four children
*Michel Leusier, cloth weaver; wife and one child
*Jerome Le Roy, cloth weaver; wife and four children
*Claude Ghiselin, tailor; young man
*Jan de Crenne, glass maker? (fritteur); wife and one child
*Louis Broque, labourer; wife and two children

More Settlers from Various Sources

According to the records, in 1635, in addition to those before-mentioned were Jonas Austin, Nicholas Baker, Clement Bates Richard Betscome, Benjamin Bozworth, William Buckland, James Cade, Anthony Cooper, John Cutler, John Farrow, Daniel Fop, Jarvice Gould, Wm. Hersey, Nicholas Hodsdin, Thos. Johnson, Andrew Lane, Wm. Large, Thomas Loring, George Ludkin, Jeremy Morse, William Nolton, John Otis, David Phippeny, John Palmer, John Porter, Henry Rust, John Smart, Francis Smith (or Smyth), John Strong, Henry Tuttil, William Walton, Thomas Andrews, William Arnall, George Bacon, Nathaniel Baker, Thomas Collier, George Lane, George Marsh, Abraham Martin, Nathaniel Peck, Richard Osborn, Thomas Wakely, Thomas Gill, Richard Ibrook, William Cockerum, William Cockerill, John Fearing, John Tucker.

Moreover, in 1636 were John Beal, senior, Anthony Eames, Thomas Hammond, Joseph Hull, Richard Jones, Nicholas Lobdin, Richard Langer, John Leavitt, Thomas Lincoln, Jr., miller, Thomas Lincoln, cooper, Adam Mott, Thomas Minard, John Parker, George Russell, William Sprague, George Strange, Thomas Underwood, Samuel Ward, Ralph Woodward, John Winchester, William Walker.

In 1637 were Thomas Barnes, Josiah Cobbit, Thomas Chaffe, Thomas Clapp, William Carlslye (or Carsly), Thomas Dimock, Vinton Dreuce, Thomas Hett, Thomas Joshlin, Aaron Ludkin, John Morrick, Thomas Nichols, Thomas Paynter, Edmund Pitts, Joseph Phippeny, Thomas Shave, Ralph Smith, Thomas Turner, John Tower, Joseph Underwood, William Ludkin, Jonathan Bozworth.

In 1638 there was a considerable increase of the number of settlers.  Among them were Mr. Robert Peck, Joseph Peck, Edward Gilman, John Foulsham, Henry Chamberlain, Stephen Gates, George Knights, Thomas Cooper, Matthew Cushing, John Beal, Jr., Francis James, Philip James, James Buck, Stephen Payne, William Pitts, Edward Michell, John Sutton, Stephen Lincoln, Samuel Parker, Thomas Lincoln, Jeremiah Moore, Mr. Henry Smith, Bozoan Allen, Matthew Hawke, William Ripley.

According to our sources, all of those preceding, who came to this country in 1638, took passage in the ship Diligent, of Ipswich, John Martin, master.  In addition to these, the following named persons received grants of land in the year 1638, viz.: John Buck, John Benson, Thomas Jones, Thomas Lawrence, John Stephens, John Stodder, Widow Martha Wilder, Thomas Thaxter.

In 1639 Anthony Hilliard and John Prince received grants of land.  The name of Hewett (Huet) and Liford, are mentioned in Hobart’s Diary, in that year, and in the Diary the followings names are first found in the respective years mentioned; in 1646, Burr, in 1647, James Whiton; in 1649, John Lazell, Samuel Stowell in 1653, Garnett and Canterbury.

Passengers on the Abraham Bound from London, England, to Virginia in 1635,

John Barker (perhaps an error for Barber), Master, Arranged by First Name, Surname and Age.

Source:  http://olivetreegenealogy.com/ships/tove_abraham1635.shtml


Tobie Sylbie 20

Robert Harrison 32

Willm Lawrence 22

John Johnson 35

W. Fisher 25

Steeven Taylor 17

Tho: Penford 30

Wm Smith 25

Tho: Archdin 18

Rich Morris 17

Walter Piggott 19

Rich Watkyns 20

Jo: Brunch 13

Jo: Clark 20

Gabriell Thomas 30

David Jones 21

Alexander Maddox 22

Francis Tippsley 17

Emanuell Davies 19

W=Williams 25

Roger Matthews 28

Jo: Britton 23

George Preston 20

Robert Toulban 23

Henry Dobell 20

George Brewett 18

Francis Stanely 23

Willm Freeman 46

Edward Griffth 33

Willm Manton 30

Owen Williams 40

Tho: Flower 32

Jo: Bullar 32

Jo: Clanton 26

Alexander Symes 19

Anto Parkhurst 42

Jo” Hill 36

Alexander Gregorie 24

Martin Westlink 20

Patrick Wood 24

Tho: Kedby 25

Riger Greene 24

Will= Downs 24

Jo: Burnett 24

Tho: Allen 31

Simon Farrell 19

Tho: Clements 30

Wm Hunt 20

Kathryn Adwell 33

The David from England to Virginia 1635

“The under-written Names are to be transported to Virginea, Inbarqued in the “David,” Jo. Hogg, Master, have been examined by the minister of Gravesend, etc.”

Edward Browne 25

Samuel Troope 17

Wm Hatton 23

Daniel Bacon 30

Robert Alsopp 18

Teddar Jones 30

Tho: Siggins 18

Abell Dexter 25

Rich Caton 26

Henry Spicer 28

Tho: Granger 19

Jo: Bonfilly 21

Roger Mannington 14

Josua Chanbers 17

Henry Melton 23

Davod Lloyd 30

Donough Gornes 27

Geo: Butler 27

Addan Nunnick 25

Jo: Stann 27

Edward Spicer 18

Jo: Felding 19

Jo: Morris 26

Richard Brookes 30

Robert Barron 18

Jonathan Barnes 22

Henry kendall 17

Tho: Poulter 31

Jo: Lamb 22

Tho: Nunnick 22

Jo: Steevens 19

Edward Crabtree 20

Wm Barber 17

Ann Beeford 25

Martha Potter 20

Gurtred Lovett 18

Jane Jennings 25

Margaret Bole 30

Mary Rogers 20

margaret  Walker 20

Freese Brooran 20

Eliza Jones 20

The Bonaventure (1635)

Richard Doll 25

Tho: Perry 34

Uxor Dorothy 26

Ben: Perry

Mary Carlton 23

Abram Silvester 40

Tho: Belton

Richard Champion 1

Richard Champion 1

Abram Silvester 14

Elizabeth Nanisk 20

Jo Atkinson 30

Rich: Hore 24

Ralph Nichelson 20

Robert More 20

Joan Nubold 20

Tho: Hebden 20

Willm Sayer 58

Brazil Brooke 20

Robert Perry 40

Charles Hillard 22

Edward Clark 30

Jo: Ogell 28

Richard Hargrave 20

Jo: Anderson 20

Francis Spence 23

John Lewes 23

Richard Hughes 19

John Clark 19

Wm Guy 18

John Burd 18

James Redding 19

Richard Cooper 18

Andrew Jefferies 24

Wm Munday

Arthur Howell 20

Jo: Abby 22

James Moyser 28

Mathew Marshall 30

Wm Smith 20

Garrett Riley 24

Miles Riley 20

Willm Burch 19

Peter Dole 20

James Metcalf 22

Margerie Furbredd 20

Jo: Underwood 23

Robert Luck 25

John Wood 23

Waltr Morgan 23

Henrie Irish 16

George Greene 20

Henry Quinton 20

Jo: Bryan 25

Robert Payton 25

Tho: Symonds 27

Michell Browne 35

Jo: Hodges 37

Jo: Edmonds 16

Garrett Pownder 19

Jo: Wise 28

Henry Dunnell 23

Symon Kenneday 20

Tho: Hyet 22

Tho: James 20

Jo: Sotterfeyth 24

Emannell Bomer 18

Leonard Wetherfield 17

James Luckbarrowe 20

Tho: singer 18

Jesper Withy 21

Robert Kersley 22

Jo: Springall 18

Tho: Jessupp 18

James Perkyns 42

Daniell Greene 24

Wm Hutton 24

Jo: Wilkinson 19

Hugh Garland 20

Richard Spencer 18

Humfrey Topsall 24

Tho: Stanton 20

John Fountaine 18

Henry Redding 22

Loughten Bosteck 16

John Russell 19

Tho: Ridgley 23

Robert Harris 19

Willm Mason 10

Victor Derrick 23

John Bamford 28

Margaret Huntley 20

Geo: Session 40

Jo: Cooke 47

Tho: Townson 26

Tho: Parson 30

Tho:Goodman 25

Philip Connor 21

Launcelot Pyrce 21

Uxor Thomazin 18

Kat: Yates 19

Alveryn Cowper 20

Jo: Dunnell 26

Leonard Evans 22

Tho: Anderson 28

Edward Cranfield 18

Jo: Baggley 14

Tho: Smith 14

Willm Weston 30

Tho: Townsend 14

Edward Davies 25

Mary Saunders 26

Jane Chambers 23

Margaret Maddocks 21

Roger Sturdevant 21

John Wigg 24

John Greenwood 16

Andrew Dunton 38

John Wise 30

Wm Hudson 32

Tho: Edmborough 37

John Hill 50

Henry Rogers 30

Robert Smithson 23

Nics Harvey 30

James Grafton 22

Daniell Daniell 18

Reginell Hawes 25

Geo: Burlington 20

Jo: Hutchinson 22

James Crane 17

Richard Hurman 20

Sam: Ashley 19

Geo: Burlingham 20

Elizabeth Jackson 17

Sara Turner 20

Mary Ashley 24


Huguenot Refugees on Board Ship “Mary and Ann”, August 12, 1700 Virginia, James City.


Pierre Delome, et sa  femme

Marguerite Sene, et sa fille

Magdalaine Mertle

Jean Vidau

Jean Menager et Jean Lesnard

Estienne Badouet

Pierre Morrisct

Jedron Chamboux et sa femme

Jean Farry et Jerome Dumas

Jean Tardieu

Jean Moreau

Jaques Roy, et sa femme

Abraham Sablet, et des deux enfants

Quintin Chastatain et Michael Roux

Jean Quictet, sa femme and trios enfants

Henry Cabanis, sa femme et un enfant

Jaques Sayte

Jean Boisson

Francois Bosse

Teertulien Sehult, et sa femme et deux enfants

Pierre Lauret

Jean Roger

Pierre Chastain, a femme et cinq enfants

Philippe Duvivier

Pierre Nace, sa femme et leur deux filles

Francois Clere

Symon Sardin

Sourbragon, et Jacques Nicolay

Pierre Mallet

Francoise Coupet

Jean Oger, sa femme et trios enfants

Jane or Jean Saye

Elizabet Angeliere

Jean et Claude Mallfant, avec leur mere

Isaac Chabanas, sou fils, et Catharine Bomard

Estinne Chastain

Adam Vignes

Jean Fouchie

Francoise Sassin

Andre Cochet

Jean Gaury, sa femme et un enfant

Pierre Gaury, sa femme et un enfant

Pierre Perrut, et sa femme

Isaac Panetier

Jean Parransos sa seur

Elie Tremson, sa femme

Elizabeth Tignac

Antoine Trouillard

Jean Bourru et Jean Bouchet

Jaques Boyes

Elizabet Migot

Catherine Godwal

Pierre la Courru

Jean et Michell Cautepie, sa femme et deux enfants

Jaques Broret, sa femme et deux enfants

Abraham Moulin et sa femme

Francois Billot

Pierre Comte

Ettienne Guevin

Rene Massoneau

Francois Du Tartre

Isaac Verry

Jean Parmentier

David Thonitier et sa femme

Moyse Lewreau

Pierre Tillou

Marie Levesque

Jean Constantin

Claud Berdon sa femme

Jean Imbert, et sa femme

Elizabeth Fleury

Looys du Pyn

Jaques Richard, et sa femme

Adam et Marie Prevost

Jaques Viras, et sa femme

Jawues Brouse, sou enfant

Pierre Cornu

Louiss Bon

Isaac Fordet

Jean Pepre

Jean Gaillard et son fils

Anthonie Matton, et sa femme

John Lucadou et sa femme

Louiss Orange, sa femme et un enfant

Daniel Taure, et deux enfants

Pierre Cupper

Daniel Roy

Magdelain Gigou

Pierre Grelet

Jean Jovany, sa femme, deux enfnans

Pierre Ferrier, sa femme, un enfant

La vefve faure et quatre enfants

Isaac Arnaud, et sa femme

Pierre Chantanier, sa femme et son pere

Jaen Fonasse

Jaques Bibbeau

Jean March

Catherine Billot

Marie et Symon Jourdon

Abraham Menot

Timothy Moul, sa femme un enfant

Jean Savin sa femme un enfant

Jean Sargeaton sa femme un enfant

Claude Philipe, et sa femme

Gabriel Sturter

Pierre de Corne

Helen Trubyer




List of Passengers from London to James River in Virginia Inbarqued in the Ship ye “Peter and Anthony,” Galley of London, Daniel Perreau, Commander (viz’t) 20th of Sept. 1700

Jean Pilard

Estienne Ocosnad (Turkish)?

Abraham Remis sa femme = Ramy

Jean Le Franc Vudurand

Daniel Maison Dieu

Pierre Baudry

David Menestrier

Jacob Fleurnoir, sa femme 2 garsons & 2 fille avid Blevet sa femme & 6 enfants

Elizabeth Lemat

Abraham Le Foix sa femme & 4 enfants

Jean Aunant, sa femme & un fille

Jean Genge de Melvis

Monsieur Je Joux, minister

Francois de Launay, & un enfants

Gaspart, sa femme & 7 enfants

Jacques Corbell

Jacob Capen

Isaac Iroc (Iraq?)

Elie Gastand

Anthonie Boignard

Nicholas Mare, sa femme & 2 enfants

Jaques Feuillet & sa femme.

Pierre Sarazin

Jean Perrachou

Phillippe Claude

Simon Hugault

Samuel Barrel

Gaspar Gueruer sa femme & 3 enfants

Jean Soulegre

Jean Morroe (possibly Moreau)

Louis Desfontaine & sa femme

Pierre Masset

Solomon Jourdan

Estienne Chabran, sa femme

Susanne Soblet & 3 enfants

Jean Hugon

Michel Michel

Mheodore de Rousseau

Pierre Cavalier, sa femme & un garson

Pierre Anthonie Eupins

Isaac Le ffeure (now Lefew in Virginia)

Jean Martain

Pierre Renaudd

Marthien Roussel

Augustin Coullard

Jean Coullard

Jaques du Crow, sa femme & une fille

Paul Laurion

Moise Broc.

Jean Pierre Bondurand[5]

Pierre La Badic

Jean Bossard, sa femme & 3 enfants

Guillaume Rullett

Anthony Gioudar

Anne Carbonnet & un enfant

Guillemme Guervot, sa femme & un garson

Louis Robert, & un fille

Estienne Tauvin, sa femme & 2 enfants

Paul Castiche

Jean Mazeris

Noel Delamarre sa femme & un fille

Jean Le Vilain

Jean Marisset

Jean Maillard & 3 enfants

Thimotthree Roux

Gaspart Guamondet & sa femme

Daniel Rogier

Pierre Gosfand

Soloman Ormund

Louis Geoffray

Maize Veneuil, sa femme & 5 enfants

Joseph Oliver (probably from Niort, in Poitou)

Jaques Faucher

Pierre La Grand, sa femme & 5 enfants

Pierre Prevol (Prevat, Prevatte[6])

Daniel Riches

Francis Clapie

Jacob Riche, sa femme & un enfants

Mathier Passedoit

Pierre Hiuert

Michel Fournet, sa femme & deux enfants

Jean Monnicat

Simon Faucher

Jean Combelle

[1] Copies of this list in public records as all the following ones in this Appendix and elsewhere in our book are legion in scholarly and popular literature. As far as we are informed they do not represent copyright materials. Out of convenience, we have followed in this instance the list provided by the National Park Service. Others are published all over the Internet. We make no claim that the list provided here is original, authoritative or definitive. At the same time, we have attempted to harmonize different versions and acknowledge important sources. If anyone holds the copyright to this or similar material used by us, we would appreciate hearing so that we can make the correction.  –The Authors.
[2] The original group came in May 1607, the first supply group in January 1608, and the second supply group in the fall 1608. Occupations are given with original spellings. List is based on the records of John Smith, "Proceedings of the English Colony in Virginia" and Generall Historie. The record states there were “diverse others to the number of 105.”
[3] This is the title of the facsimile parchment record in my possession.
[4] There were 144 persons in the expedition including the one hundred five who remained in Virginia.
[5] One of the authors’ ancestors from Provence, said to have been of extremely dark appearance. The surname was probably originally a Spanish compound one, Bon-Durante, a form of the “good name” (see App. C). Durands/Durants were a prominent Sephardic family of rabbis, physicians and scholars who settled mostly in Provence, Marseilles, Majorca and Morocco after the Expulsion of 1492 (Faiguenboim et al 244), where the Bondurants originated. Jean Pierre, the emigrant, was an apothecary and vintner by profession. His mother was Gabrielle Barjon (“son of Jean”). A Barjon relative was one of the organizers of the mass escape from France, which led the Huguenots through Switzerland, Germany and finally, London, to the New World. Jean Pierre’s wife, Rhoda Faur (Anglicized as Ford), also bore a Sephardic surname (Faiguenboim et al 256). The Bondurant family can be traced back to Génolhac, département Gard, France, to the early sixteenth century, but not before—as we have seen, often a clue invoking the date 1492. They were probably relatively new arrival from Inquisitorial Spain. In Virginia, the Bondurants intermarried again and again with Agee, Maxey, Radford and Ford cousins, a common crypto-Jewish trait.
[6] Ancestor of co-author’s spouse, Teresa Panther-Yates. The family intermarried with Tuscarora and Cherokee Indians and was later known as Black Dutch.


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